Cases reported "Chylothorax"

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1/165. Management of postoperative chylothorax with nitric oxide: a case report.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of inhaled nitric oxide in the management of refractory postoperative chylothorax. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: A pediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary care children's hospital. PATIENT: A neonate with refractory chylothoraces complicated by moderate pulmonary hypertension after a complicated arterial switch operation. INTERVENTIONS: Administration of inhaled nitric oxide through a ventilator circuit. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The institution of inhaled nitric oxide at 20 ppm resulted in a marked reduction in chest tube drainage and a decrease in echocardiographically estimated pulmonary artery pressure from 50%-75% systemic to 30%-50% systemic. Chest tube drainage doubled when the nitric oxide was decreased to 10 ppm and, again, dramatically decreased after raising nitric oxide back to 20 ppm. After 8 days of nitric oxide therapy, the chest tube drainage ceased. nitric oxide therapy was successfully discontinued 19 days after initiation, with no recurrence of chylothorax. There was no effect of nitric oxide on systemic blood pressure. methemoglobin levels while on NO remained <1.7%. CONCLUSION: Consideration may be given to the use of inhaled nitric oxide in the therapy of refractory chylothoraces complicated by central venous hypertension.
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2/165. Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis. A study of 69 patients. Groupe d'Etudes et de Recherche sur les Maladies "Orphelines" Pulmonaires (GERM"O"P).

    Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disorder of unknown cause characterized by peribronchial, perivascular, and perilymphatic proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle cells leading to cystic lesions. The hypothesis of hormonal dependence and the effectiveness of hormonal therapy have not yet been demonstrated conclusively, and the prevalence of extrathoracic manifestations and the survival of patients with LAM are somewhat contradictory. A multicentric retrospective study was conducted in an attempt to describe better the initial features, the diagnostic procedures, the associated lesions, and, above all, the management and course of LAM in a large homogeneous series of 69 stringently selected patients, with a majority of cases diagnosed since 1990. The aim of the study, based on a review of the literature, also was to provide a comprehensive view of this uncommon disease. The clinical features were in keeping with previous studies, but we found that exertional dyspnea and pneumothorax were the most common features, and chylous involvement was less frequent. LAM was diagnosed after menopause in about 10% of cases. The onset of LAM occurred during pregnancy in 20% of cases, and a clear exacerbation of LAM was observed in 14% of cases during pregnancy. Pulmonary LAM was diagnosed on lung histopathology in 83% of cases, but renal angiomyolipoma, observed in 32% of our patients, may be a useful diagnostic criterion when associated with typical multiple cysts on chest CT scan or with chylous effusion. Chest CT scan was more informative than chest X-ray (normal in 9% of cases), and may be indicated in spontaneous pneumothorax or renal angiomyolipoma in women of childbearing age. About 40% of the patients had a normal initial spirometry, while an obstructive ventilatory defect (44%), a restrictive ventilatory defect (23%), was observed in other patients. Initial diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide was frequently decreased (82%). Hormonal therapy was administered in 57 patients, but a clear > or = 15% improvement of FEV1 was observed in only 4 evaluable patients, treated with tamoxifen and progestogens (n = 2), progestogen (n = 1), and oophorectomy (n = 1). Probably 1 of the most urgent needs for clinical research in LAM is to test the currently available hormonal treatments in the context of international multicenter prospective controlled studies. pleurodesis was performed in 40 patients. lung transplantation was performed in 13 patients, 7.8 /- 5.2 years after onset of LAM, in whom the mean FEV1 was 0.57 /- 0.15 L. After a follow-up of 2.3 /- 2.2 years, 9 patients were alive. Mean follow-up from onset of disease to either death or closing date was 8.2 /- 6.3 years. overall survival was better than usually reported in LAM, and Kaplan-Meier plot showed survival probabilities of 91% after 5 years, 79% after 10 years, and 71% after 15 years of disease duration.
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3/165. lymphoscintigraphy demonstrating thoracic duct injury in an infant with hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

    Chylous effusion is an infrequent complication of cardiothoracic surgery and a less frequent complication of central line placement. The authors describe a novel application of lymphoscintigraphy showing thoracic duct injury in an infant after surgery for hypoplastic left heart syndrome.
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4/165. chylothorax after thoracoscopic esophagectomy.

    Among 30 patients who underwent thoracoscopic esophagectomy with lymphadenectomy for thoracic esophageal cancer, from July 1995 to May 1997, chylothorax developed in 2 patients (7%). In Case 1, the ligation of the thoracic duct under conventional right thoracotomy was performed on the 9th day after esophagectomy. After ligation, the pleural effusion was decreased, and the patient was discharged from hospital on the 25th day after the second operation. In Case 2, massive pleural effusion developed on the 10th day after esophagectomy (at 3 days after thoracic drainage tube was removed). The thoracic duct was ligated at the level just cranial to the diaphragm thoracoscopically on the 14th day after esophagectomy. The patient was discharged from hospital on the 30th day after the second operation. Injury to the thoracic duct due to a magnification effect of the view of scopic surgery remains a pitfall in thoracoscopic esophagectomy. But thoracoscopic ligation of thoracic duct was effective and safe for these two cases of chylothorax after esophagectomy.
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5/165. Conservative management of postoperative chylothorax using somatostatin.

    chylothorax is a rare but serious postoperative complication of thoracic surgical procedures. We report the case of a 77-year-old man who underwent a coronary artery bypass procedure using a left internal mammary artery pedicle graft. A permanent pacemaker was required postoperatively. A persistent postoperative chylothorax developed necessitating continuous drainage and conservative management. somatostatin was instituted when after 1 week this management failed to resolve the chylothorax. This led to rapid cessation of chyle production. Enteral feeding was reinstituted without complication and surgical intervention was avoided.
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6/165. Thoracoscopic ligation of the thoracic duct.

    OBJECTIVE: When nonoperative treatment of chylothorax fails, thoracic duct ligation is usually performed through a thoracotomy. We describe two cases of persistent chylothorax, in a child and an adult, successfully treated with thoracoscopic ligation of the thoracic duct. methods: A 4-year-old girl developed a right chylothorax following a fontan procedure. Aggressive nonoperative management failed to eliminate the persistent chyle loss. A 72-year-old insulin-dependent diabetic man was involved in a motor vehicle accident, in which he sustained multiple fractured ribs, a right hemopneumothorax, a right femoral shaft fracture, and a T-11 thoracic vertebral fracture. Subsequently, he developed a right chylothorax, which did not respond to nonoperative management. Both patients were successfully treated with thoracoscopic ligation of the thoracic duct. RESULTS: The child had significant decrease of chyle drainage following surgery. Increased drainage that appeared after the introduction of full feedings five days postoperatively was controlled with the somatostatin analog octreotide. The chest tube was removed two weeks after surgery. After two years' follow-up, she has had no recurrence of chylothorax. The adult had no chyle drainage following surgery. He was maintained on a medium-chain triglyceride diet postoperatively for two weeks. The chest tube was removed four days after surgery. After six months' follow-up, he has had no recurrence of chylothorax. CONCLUSIONS: Thoracoscopic ligation of the thoracic duct provides a safe and effective treatment of chylothorax and may avoid thoracotomy and its associated morbidity.
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7/165. Thoracoscopic direct clipping of the thoracic duct for chylopericardium and chylothorax.

    BACKGROUND: chylothorax is a challenging clinical problem. Untreated, it carries a high mortality and morbidity. Traditional surgical management for cases refractory to conservative treatment is thoracic duct ligation through a right open thoracotomy. methods: We describe 4 patients treated successfully by video-assisted thoracic surgery, using ports and no thoracotomy, and precise ligation and division of the thoracic duct just above the diaphragm. A pericardial window was made in the patient with chylopericardium, as in the patient with end-stage renal disease. pleurodesis was used in the patient with esophageal carcinoma and the patient with jugular and subclavian vein thrombosis. RESULTS: There were 2 women aged 18 and 42 years and 2 men, aged 61 and 65 years. No procedure-related mortality or morbidity occurred. In patients 1, 2, 3, and 4, the postoperative duration of drainage was 5, 7, 7, and 5 days, respectively (mean duration, 6 days) and the hospital stay, 5, 9, 10, and 5 days, respectively (mean stay, 7 days). There was no recurrence of chylothorax or chylopericardium during follow-up (range, 2 to 24 months; mean follow-up, 9 months). One patient died of esophageal carcinoma 4 months after operation. CONCLUSIONS: Video-assisted thoracic surgery without a thoracotomy is an effective way of treating chylothorax and carries minimal morbidity.
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8/165. Spontaneous chylothorax--case report.

    A-19-year old male patient complained of shortness of breath. Aspiration of the pleural fluid revealed chylothorax. Right chest tube was inserted. His ABG showed hypoxaemia with relative hypercarbia. He underwent right thoracotomy and thoracic duct ligation under general anaesthesia and double lumen endobroncheal intubation. During surgery he lost 1.5 L of blood and 4 L chyle. He was transferred to the SICU intubated and on mechanical ventilation. On the subsequent days chyle leak was reduced to a minimum of 10 ml/hr. On the 9th postoperative day the patient was extubated. He was receiving TPN 2600 kcal/day. He was transferred to the normal floor on the 15th day. After 7 day he was readmitted, his chest showed severe lung fibrosis and consolidation. His ABG showed severe hypercarbia (PaCO2 = 126 mmHg). The patient was intubated. His condition deteriorated and he was considered for lung transplantation. No donor was available. Later he arrested and died. Anaesthesia and surgical management of spontaneous chylothorax is challenging. The mortality rate is high.
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9/165. The successful management of thoracoscopic thoracic duct ligation in a compromised infant with targeted lobar deflation.

    IMPLICATIONS: We describe the successful management of thoracoscopic thoracic duct ligation in a 2.5-kg compromised infant by using selective lobar-bronchial blockade. The technique reduces the risk of intraprocedural physiologic impairment, allowing the benefits of otherwise minimally invasive thoracoscopic procedures, even when the conditions of children are severely compromised.
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ranking = 5
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10/165. Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia: a case report of thoracic duct agenesis.

    We present a 17-year-old Caucasian male with congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia and an absent thoracic duct. This patient is unique as he did not present with the disorder until age 9.5 years. Since his initial presentation he has had recurrent chylothoraces and has been treated symptomatically. We discuss the possible implications of his disorder as well as some of the limited treatment that is available.
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