Cases reported "Chylothorax"

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1/142. Pseudochylothorax. Report of 2 cases and review of the literature.

    We report 2 cases of pseudochylothorax and review 172 published cases. tuberculosis is by far the most frequent cause of pseudochylothorax, accounting for 54% of all caes, with a remarkable association with previous collapse therapy and long-term effusions. The remaining etiologies, including rheumatoid arthritis, are infrequent. Tuberculous pseudochylothorax is usually sterile. Successful treatment of an acute tuberculous pleurisy does not preclude the development of long-term complications such as pseudochylothorax. We do not recommend pleural biopsy initially because of its low yield for etiologic diagnosis. Currently, adenosine deaminase (ADA) values in pleural fluid are not useful to sustain diagnosis or therapeutic decisions. We advise draining only symptomatic cases and treating patients with positive Ziehl-Neelsen stain or Lowenstein culture, and those with growing effusions of suspected tuberculous origin, with antituberculous chemotherapy. Pulmonary decortication should be the last therapeutic step for recurrent and symptomatic cases.
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2/142. Pseudochylothorax in pleural effusion due to coronary artery bypass surgery.

    This study describes a 64-yr-old male with a chronic left pleural effusion following a coronary artery bypass 3 yrs earlier. On thoracocentesis, turbid fluid was obtained with crystals of cholesterol on microscopic examination, establishing the diagnosis of pseudochylothorax. The pleural fluid cholesterol level was 207 mg x dL(-1) (5.36 mmol x L(-1)). This is the first report of pseudochylothorax in a chronic pleural effusion due to coronary artery bypass surgery.
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3/142. chylothorax, chylopericardium and lymphoedema--the presenting features of signet-ring cell carcinoma.

    This report describes a patient with chylous pleural and pericardial effusions in conjunction with severe lymphoedema resembling elephantiasis. The chylous effusions and generalized lymphoedema were associated with a signet-ring cell carcinoma.
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4/142. Always remember chylothorax.

    chylothorax is a rare cause of pleural effusion in association with cardiovascular surgery. A 68-year-old man had a coronary artery bypass graft; 10 days after surgery, he had progressive shortness of breath and a massive left pleural effusion. After chylothorax was diagnosed, it was successfully treated with a thoracostomy tube and total parenteral nutrition. The patient had an uneventful recovery. Nutrition is the most important issue in the treatment of chylothorax. Once chylothorax is identified, nutritional support is the priority, since it will have an important role in the recovery of the patient. Besides our case, we hereby present a short review of the literature regarding the diagnosis and management of this rare entity.
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5/142. Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis. A study of 69 patients. Groupe d'Etudes et de Recherche sur les Maladies "Orphelines" Pulmonaires (GERM"O"P).

    Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disorder of unknown cause characterized by peribronchial, perivascular, and perilymphatic proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle cells leading to cystic lesions. The hypothesis of hormonal dependence and the effectiveness of hormonal therapy have not yet been demonstrated conclusively, and the prevalence of extrathoracic manifestations and the survival of patients with LAM are somewhat contradictory. A multicentric retrospective study was conducted in an attempt to describe better the initial features, the diagnostic procedures, the associated lesions, and, above all, the management and course of LAM in a large homogeneous series of 69 stringently selected patients, with a majority of cases diagnosed since 1990. The aim of the study, based on a review of the literature, also was to provide a comprehensive view of this uncommon disease. The clinical features were in keeping with previous studies, but we found that exertional dyspnea and pneumothorax were the most common features, and chylous involvement was less frequent. LAM was diagnosed after menopause in about 10% of cases. The onset of LAM occurred during pregnancy in 20% of cases, and a clear exacerbation of LAM was observed in 14% of cases during pregnancy. Pulmonary LAM was diagnosed on lung histopathology in 83% of cases, but renal angiomyolipoma, observed in 32% of our patients, may be a useful diagnostic criterion when associated with typical multiple cysts on chest CT scan or with chylous effusion. Chest CT scan was more informative than chest X-ray (normal in 9% of cases), and may be indicated in spontaneous pneumothorax or renal angiomyolipoma in women of childbearing age. About 40% of the patients had a normal initial spirometry, while an obstructive ventilatory defect (44%), a restrictive ventilatory defect (23%), was observed in other patients. Initial diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide was frequently decreased (82%). Hormonal therapy was administered in 57 patients, but a clear > or = 15% improvement of FEV1 was observed in only 4 evaluable patients, treated with tamoxifen and progestogens (n = 2), progestogen (n = 1), and oophorectomy (n = 1). Probably 1 of the most urgent needs for clinical research in LAM is to test the currently available hormonal treatments in the context of international multicenter prospective controlled studies. pleurodesis was performed in 40 patients. lung transplantation was performed in 13 patients, 7.8 /- 5.2 years after onset of LAM, in whom the mean FEV1 was 0.57 /- 0.15 L. After a follow-up of 2.3 /- 2.2 years, 9 patients were alive. Mean follow-up from onset of disease to either death or closing date was 8.2 /- 6.3 years. overall survival was better than usually reported in LAM, and Kaplan-Meier plot showed survival probabilities of 91% after 5 years, 79% after 10 years, and 71% after 15 years of disease duration.
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6/142. Management of acute chylothorax with hydrops fetalis diagnosed in the third trimester of pregnancy.

    A fetus with large pleural effusion and hydrops fetalis diagnosed in the third trimester was successfully treated with prompt vaginal delivery followed by drainage of the pleural cavity, after confirmation of congenital chylothorax and re-expansion of the lung with prenatal thoracentesis.
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7/142. Congenital chylothorax in neonatal thyrotoxicosis.

    We report a patient with congenital chylothorax who also had neonatal thyrotoxicosis secondary to maternal Graves' disease. Fetal tachycardia with hydrops was detected at 28 weeks' gestational age. The fetus responded to antithyroid medication in utero but had persistent bilateral pleural effusion. At birth, he had respiratory distress due to massive pleural effusion. Cytologic studies of pleural fluid were consistent with chylothorax. To the best of our knowledge, the association of congenital chylothorax with fetal (neonatal) thyrotoxicosis, has not been reported previously.
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8/142. chylothorax after myocardial revascularization with the left internal thoracic artery.

    A 38-year-old male underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). A saphenous vein graft was attached to the left marginal branch. The left internal thoracic artery was anastomosed to the left anterior descending artery (LAD). The early recovery was uneventful and the patient was discharged on the 5th postoperative day. After three months, he came back to the hospital complaining of weight loss, weakness, and dyspnea on mild exertion. Chest x-rays showed left pleural effusion. On physical examination, a decreased vesicular murmur was detected. After six days, the diagnosis of chylothorax was made after a milky fluid was detected in the plural cavity and total pulmonary expansion did not occur. On the next day, both anterior and posterior pleural drainage were performed by videothoracoscopy, and prolonged parenteral nutrition (PPN) was instituted for ten days. After seven days the patient was put on a low-fat diet for 8 days. The fluid accumulation ceased, the drains were removed and the patient was discharged with normal pulmonary expansion.
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9/142. lymphoscintigraphy demonstrating thoracic duct injury in an infant with hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

    Chylous effusion is an infrequent complication of cardiothoracic surgery and a less frequent complication of central line placement. The authors describe a novel application of lymphoscintigraphy showing thoracic duct injury in an infant after surgery for hypoplastic left heart syndrome.
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10/142. chylothorax: a novel therapy.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a novel therapy for chylothorax. DESIGN: Case report. PATIENT: Severely ill neonate with congestive heart failure and high surgical risk. INTERVENTIONS: Standard therapy for chylous effusion with the addition of pressure control ventilation and positive end-expiratory pressure (high mean airway pressure). RESULTS: Rapid resolution of effusion with elimination of excessive fluid needs and correction of coagulation profile. CONCLUSION: Increasing mean airway pressure by pressure control ventilation and positive end-expiratory pressure should be considered as a therapeutic intervention in patients with persistent chylous effusions.
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