Cases reported "Cicatrix"

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1/75. Correction of the depressed, retracted, post-tracheostomy scar.

    Many methods have been developed for the correction of tracheal tug and scar depression. Early authors did well in correcting scar depression, but the correction of tracheal tug was more difficult. One method used to limit scarring is intralesional steroid injections. Repeated steroid injections inhibit healing, which could also limit skin-to-trachea adhesions. Carlson et al. were the first to advocate the use of an alloplastic barrier to prevent tracheal tug. Lyophilized dura has been used for several years by various surgical specialties. Microscopic studies have shown no host response; in fact, fibroblastic ingrowth is common. The use of alloplastic dura ensures that there is no contracture between the trachea and the skin, thus preventing tracheal tug. Alternatives to this method include soft-tissue procedures (as previously mentioned) to add bulk and then triamcinolone acetonide injections to prevent adherence and scarring. It is important to treat each case individually and to provide treatment that is best suited to the patient's needs. The method used in these case reports not only eliminates scar depression, but prevents tracheal tug as well.
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2/75. dancing girl flap: a new flap suitable for web release.

    To create a deep web, a flap must be designed to have a high elongation effect in one direction along the mid-lateral line of the finger and also to have a shortening effect in the other direction, crossing at a right angle to the mid-lateral line. The dancing girl flap is a modification of a four-flap Z-plasty with two additional Z-plasties. It has a high elongation effect in one direction (>550%) and a shortening effect in the other direction at a right angle (<33%), creating a deep, U-shaped surface. This new flap can be used to release severe scar contracture with a web, and is most suitable for incomplete syndactyly with webs as high as the proximal interphalangeal joint.
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3/75. Correction of axillary burn scar contracture with the thoracodorsal perforator-based cutaneous island flap.

    Axillary scar contracture is observed frequently after severe burn insult and is usually accompanied by injuries to the adjacent area. Although many therapeutic methods, including skin grafting, Z-plasties, local flaps, island flaps, and free flaps, have been established, each technique has its own advantages and disadvantages in specific situations. The decision regarding which technique to use can only be made after consideration is given to the merits of the individual case. We applied thoracodorsal perforator-based cutaneous flaps to 5 patients with axillary burn scar contractures and damaged adjacent tissues. In 1 patient both axillae were involved. Elevated flaps as large as 11 x 27 cm in size were used. All flaps survived completely even when raised in scar tissue. The donor sites were closed primarily except one, which needed a skin graft. Three patients obtained satisfactory release with more than 160 deg shoulder abduction. In 2 patients, release was incomplete with only 110 deg shoulder abduction, but neither one required a second release. The range of motion in terms of shoulder abduction was improved preoperatively (30-90 deg) to postoperatively (110-170 deg). The thoracodorsal perforator-based cutaneous flap presents a very useful reconstructive method for the treatment of axillary defects.
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ranking = 6
keywords = contracture
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4/75. Fist position for skin grafting on the dorsal hand: II. Clinical use in deep burns and burn scar contractures.

    The fundamental problem in all types of hand burns is a loss of skin and subsequent deformities. The goal of skin grafting on the dorsal hand is to graft a sufficient amount of skin, as much as the original amount, and to restore normal hand function without secondary deformities. The safe, or michigan, position commonly has been used for immobilizing the hand. However, this position is to protect hand function rather than to provide for adequate skin grafting. This institution has developed a new hand position (the fist position) for grafting the greatest amount of skin on the dorsal side of the hand. In the fist position, the hand is positioned flexing all joints of the wrist and the fingers and maximally stretching the dorsal surface of the hand before skin grafting. Ten hands with deep second- or third-degree burn (n = 6) and burn scar contracture (n = 4) of the dorsal hand in eight patients were treated with split-thickness skin grafting after immobilizing in the fist position. The burns and contractures involved nearly the total area of the dorsal hand. The hand was kept in the fist position for 7 to 9 days after skin grafting. Excellent functional and cosmetic results were observed in all cases during the follow-up period of 6 months to 2 years. Complications resulting from hand immobilization for a short period did not occur. The fist position may be a proper hand position for skin grafting to reconstruct the dorsal hand.
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ranking = 6
keywords = contracture
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5/75. Correction of scar contracture deformities of the big toe with a multiplanar distraction device.

    A multiplanar distraction device was used in a 65-year-old woman for correction of multiplanar deformities of her right big toe. These deformities were caused by long-standing scar contracture after a crushing injury to the right foot. Without the necessity of other complicated procedures, the dorsal contracture and lateral deviation were corrected from 43 deg to 0 deg and from 22 deg to 0 deg respectively 3 weeks postoperatively. Kirschner wires were inserted temporarily for prevention of recurrence after removal of the frame, and were removed 6 weeks later. In follow-up after 8 months, the position of the big toe was stable and without recurrence of contracture. Application of the multiplanar distraction device simplified the surgical procedure to achieve this correction.
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ranking = 7
keywords = contracture
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6/75. Complex foot deformities associated with soft-tissue scarring in children.

    Two cases of deformities in scarred feet are presented. One case had an old, well healed forefoot amputation with severe equinovarus deformity, and the other had an equinus deformity following a burn injury 10 months prior. Both the cases were managed by primary release of the contracted joint capsules. The correction of the soft-tissue contractures was achieved by gradual distraction using the Ilizarov apparatus. The clinical presentation and surgical treatment of complex foot deformities, complicated by the presence of scar tissue, are presented. These cases illustrate the benefits of combining soft-tissue release with the ilizarov technique of distraction histogenesis in the treatment of complicated foot deformities associated with scarring in pediatric patients.
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keywords = contracture
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7/75. Reconstruction of burn scar of the upper extremities with artificial skin.

    The management of upper-extremity burn contractures is a major challenge for plastic surgeons. After approval by the food and Drug Administration, artificial skin (Integra) has been available in taiwan since 1997. From January of 1997 to July of 1999, the authors applied artificial skin to 13 severely burned patients for the reconstruction of their upper extremities, resulting in an increased range of motion in the upper-extremity joints and improved skin quality. An additional benefit was the rapid reepithelialization of the donor sites. There were no complications of infection throughout the therapeutic course, and the overall results were satisfactory. During the 2-year study, scar condition was monitored between 8 and 24 months, and a good appearance and pliable skin were obtained according to the Vancouver Scar Scale. According to this evaluation of Oriental skin turgor, normal pigmentation was restored about 6 months after the resurfacing procedure. For patients with severe burns in whom there is insufficient available skin for a full-thickness skin graft or another appropriate flap for scar revision, Integra is an alternative. The two major concerns in dealing with artificial skin are (1) a 10- to 14-day waiting period for maturation of the neo-dermis, necessitating a two-stage operation, and (2) prevention of infection with antibiotics and meticulous wound care.
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keywords = contracture
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8/75. Cryopreserved cultured epidermal allografts achieved early closure of wounds and reduced scar formation in deep partial-thickness burn wounds (DDB) and split-thickness skin donor sites of pediatric patients.

    Burn treatment in children is associated with several difficulties, e.g. available skin replacement is small, donor area could expand, and subsequent hypertrophic scar and contracture could become larger along with their physical growth. In order to have better clinical results, the authors prepared cryopreserved cultured epidermal allografts from excess epidermal cells of other patients, and applied the epidermal allografts to 55 children, i.e. 43 cases of deep partial-thickness burn wounds (DDB) due to scald burn and 12 cases with split-thickness skin donor sites. In the 43 DDB patients, epithelialization was confirmed 9.1 /-3.6 days (mean /-S.D.) after treatment. In 10 of the 43 patients, epithelialization was comparable between the area which received the epidermal allografts (grafted area) and the area which did not receive the epidermal allografts but was covered with usual wound dressing (non-grafted area). As a result, epithelialization day was 7.9 /-1.7 in grafted areas and 20.5 /-2.3 in non-grafted areas. In the 12 patients with split-thickness skin donor sites, epithelialization was confirmed 6.3 /-0.9 days after treatment. Epithelialization of the grafted and non-grafted areas was comparable in 8 of the 12 patients, and it was 6.5 /-1.1 days and 14.1 /-1.6 days, respectively. In these 10 DDB patients and 8 split-thickness skin donor site patients, redness and scar formation were also milder in the grafted area. The 55 patients have been followed up for 1-8 years (mean, 4.75 years), and scar formation was suppressed in both DDB and split-thickness skin donor sites. These findings showed that cryopreserved cultured epidermal allografts achieve early closure of the wounds and good functional outcomes.
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keywords = contracture
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9/75. Pseudoankylosis of the mandible as a result of methyl methacrylate-induced inflammatory cicatricial contracture of the temporal muscle after cranioplasty.

    Pseudoankylosis of the mandible after intracranial surgical procedure has been widely reported, and is usually caused by fibrosis of the temporal muscle as a result of injury during the operation. We present an unusual case of mandibular pseudoankylosis as a result of methyl methacrylate-induced aseptic inflammatory cicatricial contracture of the temporal muscle after cranioplasty.
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ranking = 5
keywords = contracture
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10/75. The microvascular augmented subdermal vascular network (ma-SVN) flap: its variations and recent development in using intercostal perforators.

    In 1994 we reported the use of the microvascular augmented occipito-cervico-dorsal 'super-thin' flap for reconstruction of the cervical region in three cases. Since this preliminary report, we have performed a further 17 flaps, and the usefulness of the flap in the treatment of anterior cervical scar contractures in extensively burned patients has become apparent. Moreover, we have devised flaps with not only a narrow skin pedicle but also myocutaneous or island vascular pedicles. Various augmentation vessels, including myocutaneous perforators of the intercostal spaces in the back and chest, have also been used successfully. Here, we describe the microvascular augmented subdermal vascular network flaps that we have devised.
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ranking = 1
keywords = contracture
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