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1/7. abdominal wall endometriosis--ultrasound research: a diagnostic problem.

    abdominal wall endometriosis (AWE) is a rare event. Only a few reports in the literature mention sonographic features of this clinical entity. We describe a case of a young woman with subcutaneous endometriosis under the surgical scar of a previous cesarean section. physical examination, ultrasound findings, histopathological features and differential diagnostic problems are discussed. Ultrasound examination, in combination with clinical history, is a useful method in the diagnosis of abdominal wall endometriosis and the avoidance of diagnostic pitfalls.
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2/7. The use of silicon gel for treating children's burn scars in saudi arabia: a case study.

    This case study is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of silicon gel as an important option in burn scar treatment and to provide treatment guidelines that address cultural, clinical and patient compliance issues in saudi arabia. The case study involves an 18-month-old child whose burn scar was treated for a period of 15 months with silicon gel. The Vancouver Burn Scar Scale assessment (Baryza and Baryza, 1995), used to track progress across the duration of treatment, reflected an improvement in the scar as the composite score changed from 9 to 2. Strategies for problem solving and addressing needs unique to the environment of saudi arabia were also developed over the treatment period. The findings of this case study indicate that silicon gel may be a superior treatment option under certain circumstances. Further research with a wider sample is indicated, given the high incidence of childhood burn injuries in saudi arabia.
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3/7. Structural fat grafting: more than a permanent filler.

    Grafted fat has many attributes of an ideal filler, but the results, like those of any procedure, are technique dependent. Fat grafting remains shrouded in the stigma of variable results experienced by most plastic surgeons when they first graft fat. However, many who originally reported failure eventually report success after altering their methods of harvesting, refinement, and placement. Many surgeons have refined their techniques to obtain long-term survival and volume replacement with grafted fat. They have observed that transplanted fat not only adjusts facial and body proportion but also improves surrounding tissues into which the fat is placed. They have noted not only the improvement in the quality of aging skin and scars but also a remarkable improvement in conditions such as radiation damage, chronic ulceration, breast capsular contracture, and damaged vocal cords. The mechanism of fat graft survival is not clear, and the role of adipose-derived stem cells and preadipocytes in fat survival remains to be determined. Early research has indicated the possible involvement of more undifferentiated cells in some of the observed effects of fat grafting on surrounding tissues. Of particular interest is the research that has pointed to the use of stem cells to repair and even to become bone, cartilage, muscle, blood vessels, nerves, and skin. Further studies are essential to understand grafted fat tissue.
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4/7. obesity can be treated by suction lipoplasty when combined with other procedures.

    The development of serial suction lipoplasty enables us to remove substantial amounts of subcutaneous fat safely and dependably on an outpatient basis, and free our patients of the worry of exogenous blood transfusion. Many practitioners and researchers do not advocate suction for the treatment of obesity, but rather regard it as a means of treating localized small deposits of fat or "figure faults." The reason for their caution is that the amounts of fat to be removed from the obese patient would require extensive hospitalization, transfusion, and increased risk of complications. Liposuction, when performed as a series, can make the treatment of obesity as safe as the treatment of smaller figure faults. We now use serial suction as an adjunct to other surgical and dietary methods for the control of obesity.
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ranking = 0.25
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5/7. Psychiatric outcome of burned children and adolescents.

    Recent medical and surgical advances allow many severely burned patients to survive who formally would have died. Assessment of psychiatric outcomes with these patients may provide ways of measuring effects of acute burn care methods on later quality of life, specify more accurately their emotional needs during rehabilitation, and stimulate further research. Thirty children, aged 7 to 19, with severe burns are compared with 30 nonburned subjects matched for age, sex, SES, and parents' marital status according to DSM-III criteria. The burned children had significantly higher levels of overanxious disorder, phobias, and enuresis, but they had the same rates of present depressive disorders.
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6/7. X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata (Happle syndrome) with uncommon symmetrical shortening of the tubular bones.

    We describe the case of a 13-year-old girl suffering from chondrodysplasia punctata, associated with ichthyosis arranged along Blaschko's lines, follicular atrophoderma, cicatricial alopecia and coarse, lusterless hair. The patient also showed a congenital cataract of the right eye, dysplastic facial appearance and symmetrical shortening of the tubular bones. The pathogenetic concept of functional X-chromosome mosaicism is reviewed as well as the recent results obtained by molecular research that have failed, so far, to solve the problem of regional assignment of the underlying X-linked gene.
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7/7. Autologous fat implantation for vocal fold scar: a preliminary report.

    New insights into the anatomy and physiology of phonation, along with technological advances in voice assessment and quantification, have led to dramatic improvements in medical voice care. Techniques to prevent vocal fold scar have been among the most important, especially scarring and hoarseness associated with voice surgery. Nevertheless, dysphonia due to vocal fold scar is still encountered all too frequently. Although it is not generally possible to restore such injured voices to normal, patients with scar-induced dysphonia can usually be helped. Voice improvement is optimized through a team approach. Treatment may include sophisticated voice therapy and vocal fold surgery. Although experience with collagen injection has been encouraging in selected cases (particularly in those involving limited areas of vocal fold scar), there is no consistently successful surgical technique. Attempts to treat massive vocal fold scar, such as may be seen following vocal fold stripping, have been particularly unsuccessful. This paper reports preliminary experience with the implantation of autologous fat into the vibratory margin of the vocal fold of patients with severe, extensive scarring. Using this technique, it appears possible to recreate a mucosal wave and improve voice quality. Additional research is needed.
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