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1/7. Protean manifestations of lipoid proteinosis in a 16-year-old boy.

    We report a 16-year-old Japanese male with lipoid proteinosis showing various skin manifestations. The patient was born to nonconsanguineous parents and none of his relatives was similarly affected. The patient suffered from a hoarse voice and refractory temporal epilepsy from early childhood. Computed tomography scanning of the brain showed bilateral calcification in the temporal lobes, a characteristic feature of lipoid proteinosis. On physical examination, various skin manifestations, including papules and haemorrhagic blisters, acne-like scars at sites of minor trauma or friction, and beads of small papules along the free margins of the eyelids were noted. A skin biopsy showed deposits of homogeneous hyaline-like material, positive on periodic acid-Schiff staining, throughout the dermis, particularly around small blood vessels. It is noteworthy that a range of characteristic skin lesions can be present in a patient with lipoid proteinosis even with mild systemic involvement.
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ranking = 1
keywords = voice
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2/7. Vibratory capacity and voice outcome in patients with scarred vocal folds treated with collagen injections--case studies.

    This prospective case study evaluates the effect of collagen injections on vibratory capacity and voice outcome in four patients with vocal fold scarring. The minimum follow-up time was 6 months. We studied the effect of the injections on the vibratory capacity in a multidimensional way, using computerized image analysis of videostroboscopy, acoustic and perceptual analysis of voice recordings, as well as patients' self-evaluations. Subjective voice ratings from the patients showed improvement in two patients, while two patients had no change in voice function. None of the patients experienced any side effects from the treatment. The documented acoustic and perceptual changes were marginal, but the videostroboscopic findings suggest some improvement in vibratory capacity.
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ranking = 8
keywords = voice
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3/7. Vocal fold injury following endotracheal intubation.

    Vocal fold scarring results in the formation of fibrous tissue which disturbs the vibratory pattern of the fold during phonation. However, vocal fold scarring in humans is poorly understood because of the lack of clear case reports focusing on voice quality. The authors present a case of vocal fold scarring with changes in voice quality. At the time of injury the pedicle mucosa was cemented with fibrin glue. phonation was inhibited for two weeks and tranilast (300 mg/day) was given for 3 months. Sixty-nine days later, perceptual evaluation showed a normal result and the phonation time became better, but the mucosal vibration was still lacking. Ninety-seven days later, mucosal vibration was finally restored. We suggest that characterization of vocal fold scarring in humans may be different from that in animals, and recommend that surgical management should be avoided for at least three months after injury.
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ranking = 2
keywords = voice
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4/7. Glottic scar bands following intubation.

    We present two uncommon cases of abnormalities of the pediatric airway, which may present in the first instance to the anesthetist. Glottic scar bands are a result of intubation trauma and are a treatable cause of voice abnormalities and sometimes respiratory distress.
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ranking = 1
keywords = voice
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5/7. Hypertrophic scarring of tracheoesophageal fistula causing vocal failure.

    There are many known complications of tracheoesophageal puncture for voice restoration. A patient developed hypertrophic scarring with subsequent vocal failure, an as yet unreported complication.
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ranking = 1
keywords = voice
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6/7. Treatment of laryngeal stenosis. A conservative new approach.

    One of the most perplexing problems in laryngology is the treatment of laryngeal scar tissue. This can be supraglottic, glottic, or infraglottic. Two acceptable methods of treatment have been surgical and endoscopic. Endoscopic treatment consists of dilatation, excision of scar tissue with a laser, removal of scar tissue with insertion of a stent, and removal and scar tissue with injection of intralesional cortisone. Twelve cases are reported, treated with microscopic removal of scar tissue followed by voice rest and beclomethasone dipropionate (Vanceril) inhalations, a topical steroid. All twelve cases showed marked improvement measured by improved glottic opening and improvement of voice quality. Further evaluation of this method of treatment should be done as an auxiliary treatment to our present accepted regime of treatments in this troublesome condition.
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ranking = 2
keywords = voice
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7/7. Autologous fat implantation for vocal fold scar: a preliminary report.

    New insights into the anatomy and physiology of phonation, along with technological advances in voice assessment and quantification, have led to dramatic improvements in medical voice care. Techniques to prevent vocal fold scar have been among the most important, especially scarring and hoarseness associated with voice surgery. Nevertheless, dysphonia due to vocal fold scar is still encountered all too frequently. Although it is not generally possible to restore such injured voices to normal, patients with scar-induced dysphonia can usually be helped. Voice improvement is optimized through a team approach. Treatment may include sophisticated voice therapy and vocal fold surgery. Although experience with collagen injection has been encouraging in selected cases (particularly in those involving limited areas of vocal fold scar), there is no consistently successful surgical technique. Attempts to treat massive vocal fold scar, such as may be seen following vocal fold stripping, have been particularly unsuccessful. This paper reports preliminary experience with the implantation of autologous fat into the vibratory margin of the vocal fold of patients with severe, extensive scarring. Using this technique, it appears possible to recreate a mucosal wave and improve voice quality. Additional research is needed.
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ranking = 6
keywords = voice
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