Cases reported "Cleft Lip"

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1/25. cleft lip and palate management with maxillary expansion and space opening for a single tooth implant.

    An adult Class I malocclusion with a unilateral cleft lip and palate is presented. The maxillary transverse deficiency was managed with orthopedic expansion and the missing lateral incisor with space opening, bone grafting, and single tooth implant. The mild maxillary retrognathia and deficient lip support was managed with dental compensation.
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2/25. Reconstruction of an alveolar cleft for orthodontic tooth movement.

    Bone grafting to repair an alveolar cleft has long been an integral part of the treatment of persons with unilateral and bilateral clefts of the lip and alveolus. The presence of the cleft places a limitation on the orthodontist who would like to move teeth in the area of the cleft. Various grafting materials have been placed in alveolar clefts in an attempt to solve this problem. The case to be presented is a patient with a Class II, Division 2, malocclusion with a left unilateral alveolar cleft and a repaired cleft lip. Ten months after initiating orthodontic treatment, a free gingival graft procedure was performed because of insufficient vestibular depth and the narrow width of the keratinized attached gingiva at the left maxillary lateral and central incisor region. Two months after periodontal surgery, a mix of decalcified freeze-dried bone allograft and a granular bioactive glass graft material (1:1) were applied subperiostally on the buccal aspect of the edentulous cleft region. Six months later, the teeth adjacent to the grafted alveolar cleft were orthodontically moved into the edentulous area. The treatment results indicated that orthodontic, periodontal, and surgical interventions resulted in a successful closure of the alveolar cleft as well as improved periodontal conditions of the teeth adjacent to the cleft area. From the orthodontic point of view, tooth movement can be achieved successfully into a bone graft made of freeze-dried bone and bioactive glass.
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3/25. Interdental distraction osteogenesis and rapid orthodontic tooth movement: a novel approach to approximate a wide alveolar cleft or bony defect.

    The closure of a wide alveolar cleft and fistula in cleft patients and the reconstruction of a maxillary dentoalveolar defect in traumatic patients are challenging for both orthodontists and surgeons. This is due to the difficulty in achieving complete closure by using local attached gingiva and the great volume of bone required for the graft. In this article, the authors propose using interdental distraction osteogenesis to create a segment of new alveolar bone and attached gingiva for the complete approximation of a wide alveolar cleft/fistula and the reconstruction of a maxillary dentoalveolar defect. They performed this procedure on one patient with a traumatic maxillary dentoalveolar defect and 10 patients with unilateral or bilateral cleft lips and palates who had varied dentoalveolar clefts/fistulas. Interdental and maxillary osteotomies were performed on one side of the dental arch by the cleft or defect. After a latency period of 3 days, the osteotomized distal segment of the dental arch was then distracted and transported toward the cleft or defect by using a toothborne intraoral distraction device. The alveoli and gingivae on both ends of the cleft or defect were approximated after distraction osteogenesis. The need for extensive alveolar bone grafting was eliminated. A segment of new edentulous alveolus and attached gingiva was created interdentally at a site distant to the cleft or defect. In the cleft patients, teeth were moved orthodontically into the regenerate (newly formed alveolar bone) dental crowding 1 week after distraction. The orthodontic tooth movement was rapidly completed in 3 months, and the edentulous space was eliminated. Interdental distraction osteogenesis minimizes an alveolar cleft/fistula and helps reconstruct a maxillary dentoalveolar defect by approximating the native alveoli and gingivae; it also creates new alveolar bone and gingiva for rapid orthodontic tooth movement.
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4/25. Description of a clinical technique for tooth extraction in the cleft lip and palate area.

    cleft lip and palate are relatively common congenital malformations, which may require specialist paedodontic treatment. In this article, the case of a 9-year-old boy with bilateral complete cleft lip and palate is presented. He attended the Hospital for rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies (HRAC) for routine examination, during which the presence of pre-canine supernumeraries bilaterally in the cleft area was seen. The extraction of these dental elements was justified by extensive carious lesions and because they represented a potential problem during secondary palatoplasty. The precautions needed in tooth extraction in patients with cleft lip and palate are described, together with illustrations of the clinical procedure.
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5/25. Intranasal tooth as a complication of cleft lip and alveolus in a four year old child: case report and literature review.

    Ectopic position of teeth is not rare. The presence of teeth have been reported in ovaries, testes, anterior mediastinum, and pre-sacral regions. In the maxillofacial region, teeth have been found in maxillary sinus, mandibular condyle, coronoid process, chin, nose, and even orbit. Approximately 50 cases of a tooth in the nasal cavity have been reported in literature. However, an intranasal tooth in cases of cleft lip and palate is comparatively rare. Intranasal teeth can cause problems such as nasal obstruction, chronic rhinorrhea and speech problems. Sometimes however, they are totally symptom-free. We present here an interesting case of an intranasal tooth in a four year-old-boy, who was operated on for cleft lip and alveolus at 6 months of age. The intranasal tooth did not cause any symptoms. The tooth was extracted under general anaesthesia when it was found to be very loosely attached to the nasal mucosa. The case is discussed in the light of relevant literature on intranasal teeth in cases of cleft lip and palate.
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6/25. Van der Woude syndrome with sensorineural hearing loss, large craniofacial sinuses, dental pulp stones, and minor limb anomalies: report of a four-generation Thai family.

    A four-generation Thai family affected with Van der Woude syndrome is reported. The disorder appeared to be originally inherited from a person who was half Thai and half Pakistani. The lip lesions found in this family were varied and did not appear to be related to other phenotypes. There were some clinical manifestations possibly specific for the condition in this family. They included sensorineural hearing loss, prominent frontal bone, large frontal/sphenoidal/maxillary sinuses with increased mastoid air cells, long tooth roots, dental pulp stones, ankyloglossia, brachydactyly of hands, brachyphalangy, and hyperphalangy of toes, and single flexion crease of the fifth fingers. fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed no visible deletion at a 1q32-41 region.
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7/25. Analysis of the p63 gene in classical EEC syndrome, related syndromes, and non-syndromic orofacial clefts.

    EEC syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder with the cardinal signs of ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and orofacial clefts. EEC syndrome has been linked to chromosome 3q27 and heterozygous p63 mutations were detected in unrelated EEC families. In addition, homozygous p63 null mice exhibit craniofacial abnormalities, limb truncations, and absence of epidermal appendages, such as hair follicles and tooth primordia. In this study, we screened 39 syndromic patients, including four with EEC syndrome, five with syndromes closely related to EEC syndrome, and 30 with other syndromic orofacial clefts and/or limb anomalies. We identified heterozygous p63 mutations in three unrelated cases of EEC syndrome, two iowa white families and one sporadic case in a Filipino boy. One family is atypical for EEC and has features consistent with Hay-Wells syndrome. In this family, the mutation ablates a splice acceptor site and, in the other two, mutations produce amino acid substitutions, R280C and R304Q, which alter conserved dna binding sites. Germline mosaicism was detected in the founder of the mutation in one case. These three cases show significant interfamilial and intrafamilial variability in expressivity. We also screened p63 in 62 patients with non-syndromic orofacial clefts, identifying an intronic single nucleotide polymorphism but finding no evidence of mutations that would explain even a subset of non-syndromic orofacial clefts. This study supports a common role for p63 in classical EEC syndrome, both familial and sporadic, but not in other related or non-syndromic forms of orofacial clefts.
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8/25. Aesthetic tooth modification for patients with cleft lip and palate.

    Alongside orthodontic treatment, tooth shape modification may be indicated for teeth associated with clefts of the lip and alveolus, and in non-carious teeth, minimal tooth preparation techniques appear to be most appropriate. Two methods of tooth shape modification are described. In one, hybrid composite materials, bonded to tooth enamel using the acid-etch technique, may be considered to provide a permanent, low cost, aesthetically satisfactory result, often without tooth preparation and with minimal operating time. Alternatively, indirect veneers may be appropriate for treatment of more severely malformed teeth.
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9/25. Stabilization of an edentulous premaxilla for an alveolar bone graft: case report.

    OBJECTIVE: The patient with bilateral cleft lip and palate and an edentulous premaxilla poses several additional challenges to the surgeon and the orthodontist. The cleft segments are usually expanded and stabilized with tooth-supported orthodontic appliances prior to an alveolar bone graft. This report describes a technique for stabilizing an edentulous premaxilla using an orthodontic-surgical screw that is ligated to an orthodontic archwire.
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10/25. Secondary bone grafting in cleft lip and palate with eruption of tooth into the graft: a case report.

    Secondary bone grafting in cleft lip and palate patients is performed preferably before the eruption of permanent canine in order to provide adequate periodontal support for eruption and preservation of the teeth adjacent to the cleft. Presented here with is a case of unilateral cleft lip and palate, which was followed up from birth to 15 years of age. The role of an orthodontist in the team approach for management of such anomalies is described. Also discussed in detail is the entire range of treatment procedures the child underwent, especially the role of secondary bone grafting.
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