Cases reported "Coloboma"

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1/55. trisomy iop. A report of two cases due to a familial translocation rcp (10;21) (pII;pII).

    trisomy for the short arm of chromosome number 10 was diagnosed (by a G-banding method) in two sisters with multiple congenital defects. Their mother and two other sisters showed a balanced translocation 46,XX rcp(10;21)(p11;p11), so the affected girls were the result of a maternal adjacent-1 meiotic segregation with a karyotype 46,XX, der(21), rcp(10;21)(p11;p11)mat. The concordant features in the abnormal patients constitute the following syndrome: severe psychomotor retardation, congenital microsomatia, mild hydrocephalus with cranium-face disproportion, low set ears with hypoplastic helix, ocular colobomata, pulmonary stenosis,flexion deformity of wrists and elbows, bilateral fifth finger clinodactyly and simian creases, hypoplastic dermal ridges, bilateral talipes, persistent icterus and delayed bone age. The phenotypical and cytogenetic findings permit the individualization of the 10p trisomy.
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2/55. Bilateral microphthalmos with colobomatous orbital cyst and de-novo balanced translocation t(3;5).

    A term Caucasian male infant, born to a healthy non-related couple, was noted at birth to have bilateral edema and bluish discoloration of the lower eyelids. On physical examination, the eye globes were not visualized and hypertelorism was noted. Radiological imaging revealed large bilateral orbital cysts, microphthalmos, and severe optic nerve hypoplasia. Histological study of the excised orbital masses showed cysts lined by primitive, immature retinal tissue which contained neuroglial elements and scattered dysplastic rosettes. Chromosome analysis revealed an apparent balanced reciprocal translocation between the long arm of chromosome 3 and 5, i.e. 46, XY, t (3; 5) (q27; q11.2).Chromosome studies in parents were normal. To our knowledge, the association of this balanced translocation and microphthalmos with cyst has not been previously described in the English literature.
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3/55. Phenotypic variability of Cat-Eye syndrome.

    Cat-Eye syndrome (CES) is a disorder with a variable pattern of multiple congenital anomalies of which coloboma of the iris and anal atresia are the best known. CES is cytogenetically characterised by the presence of an extra bisatellited marker chromosome, which represents an inverted dicentric duplication of a part of chromosome 22 (inv dup(22)). We report on three CES-patients who carry an inv dup(22) diagnosed with FISH studies. They show remarkable phenotypic variability. The cause of this variability is unknown. Furthermore, we review clinical features of 71 reported patients. Only 41% of the CES-patients have the combination of iris coloboma, anal anomalies and pre-auricular anomalies. Therefore, almost 60% of the CES-patients are hard to recognize by their phenotype alone. Mild to moderate mental retardation was found in 32% (16/50) of the cases. Mental retardation occurs more frequently in male CES-patients. There is no apparent phenotypic difference between mentally retarded and mentally normal CES-patients.
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4/55. Genetic mapping of a novel X-linked recessive colobomatous microphthalmia.

    Colobomatous microphthalmia is a common ocular malformation with a heterogeneous phenotype. The majority of cases without associated systemic abnormalities have an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern [McKusick, 1990: Mendelian inheritance in man]. A few isolated cases with autosomal recessive transmission have been described [Zlotogora et al., 1994: Am J Med Genet 49:261--262]. To our knowledge, no cases of X-linked colobomatous microphthalmia that are not a part of a syndrome or a multisystem disorder have been reported. In this study, we describe a genetic and clinical evaluation of a large pedigree in which colobomatous microphthalmia is segregating in an X-linked recessive fashion. Based on recombination breakpoint analysis, we have determined that the critical interval exists between markers DXS989 and DXS441, placing the disease locus on the proximal short arm or the proximal long arm of the x chromosome. Using linkage analysis, we obtained two-point lod scores of 2.71 at zero recombination with markers DXS1058, DXS6810, DXS1199, and DXS7132. Overlapping multipoint analysis established a broad maximum from marker DXS1068 to marker DXS7132, a region spanning approximately 28 cM. This study provides evidence for the presence of a new locus for colobomatous microphthalmia.
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5/55. De novo ring chromosome 3 in a girl with hypoplastic thumb and coloboma of iris.

    We describe a female child with a ring chromosome 3, found after investigation for short stature. Her karyotype was 46,XX,r(3)(p26-q29). Her phenotype mainly differs from that of the nine patients previously reported with ring chromosome 3, by the presence of hypoplastic right thumb and bilateral coloboma of the iris.
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6/55. Phenotypic variability of the cat eye syndrome. Case report and review of the literature.

    We present a male infant with preauricular skin tags and pits, downslanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, ectopic anus, hypospadias, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The clinical features in our patient show phenotypic overlap with the cat eye syndrome, as illustrated by the review of 105 reported cases. cytogenetic analysis revealed a supernumerary marker chromosome, which was identified by microdissection and fluorescence in situ hybridization as an isodicentric chromosome 22(pter --> q11.2::q11.2 --> pter). It was proved with probes specific for the cat eye syndrome critical region that this region was present in quadruplicate in the propositus. We conclude that CES is characterized by large phenotypic variability, ranging from near normal to severe malformations, as reflected in the neurodevelopmental outcome. Preauricular skin tags and/or pits are the most consistent features, and suggest the presence of a supernumerary bisatellited marker chromosome 22 derived from duplication of the CES critical region.
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7/55. Typical and partial cat eye syndrome: identification of the marker chromosome by FISH.

    Three children are reported with typical cat eye syndrome (CES) and three more children with partial CES because of absence of coloboma, in which the supernumerary marker chromosome was studied by FISH. Using a genomic library, and also a centromeric and particularly a cosmid probe of 22q11, partial tetrasomy was shown in all cases.
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8/55. A new X-linked syndrome with agenesis of the corpus callosum, mental retardation, coloboma, micrognathia, and a mutation in the Alpha 4 gene at Xq13.

    We describe two brothers with a unique pattern of malformations that includes coloboma (iris, optic nerve), high forehead, severe retrognathia, mental retardation, and agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC). Both boys have low-set cupped ears with sensorineural hearing loss, normal phallus, pectus excavatum, scoliosis, and short stature. One brother had choanal atresia and cardiac defects consisting of ventricular septal defect (VSD) and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) which resolved spontaneously. Differential diagnosis between a number of clinical entities was considered, however, because ACC and the distinctive facial features were reminiscent of FG syndrome, dna was analyzed for markers linked to the FGS1 locus at Xq13-q21. Notably, the brothers were concordant for markers spanning this presumed FG region, and in both we have identified adjacent alterations (-57delT and T-55A) in the Alpha 4 gene located within this interval. Alpha 4 is a regulatory subunit of the major cellular phosphatase, PP2A, that has recently been shown to interact with MID1, the product of the gene mutated in X-linked Opitz GBBB syndrome. The double nucleotide change identified in this family was not observed in 410 control chromosomes, suggesting that it may be a pathogenetic change. Altered expression of Alpha 4, through either a change in translational efficiency, mRNA stability or splicing, could explain the clinical phenotype in these boys and the phenotypic overlap with Opitz GBBB syndrome.
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9/55. wolf-hirschhorn syndrome with posterior intraorbital coloboma cyst: an unusual case.

    wolf-hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is associated with partial deletion of short arm of chromosome 4, and characterized by severe growth retardation. Other characteristic features are microcephaly, intellectual handicap, Greek helmet facies and closure deficits such as cleft lip or cleft palate, coloboma of the eye, and cardiac septal defect. We herein present a new case of WHS with bilateral iris colobomata and a left intraorbital large coloboma cyst causing exophthalmos.
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10/55. Ocular coloboma and high myopia with hirschsprung disease associated with a novel ZFHX1B missense mutation and trisomy 21.

    Syndromic hirschsprung disease has been associated with mutations in ZFHX1B, a Smad-interacting transcriptional repressor protein. Tissue in situ hybridization has demonstrated strong expression of ZFHX1B in the developing eye, suggesting that some mutations in this gene may cause visual loss. However, none of the reported mutations have been associated with an ocular phenotype. We describe a patient with down syndrome and hirschsprung disease with high myopia and ocular coloboma affecting the iris and retina. In addition to trisomy 21, a novel, de novo heterozygous A to G transition in exon 8 of the ZFHX1B gene was identified, which results in a R953G amino acid substitution. This abnormality was not seen in a screen of 200 chromosomes from ethnically matched, normal controls. The arginine residue at position 953 is an extremely conserved amino acid throughout evolution. This is the first report associating hirschsprung disease and severe eye defects with a specific genetic mutation and is the first report of a mutation in ZFHX1B causing a developmental ocular anomaly.
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