Cases reported "Coloboma"

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1/97. Ocular malformations, moyamoya disease, and midline cranial defects: a distinct syndrome.

    PURPOSE: To report a 10-year-old girl with developmental anomalies of both optic disks, a chorioretinal coloboma, sphenopharyngeal meningoencephalocele, and moyamoya disease. methods: A full ophthalmologic examination, cranial magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography, and cerebral angiography were performed. RESULTS: The patient had a morning glory disk anomaly and microphthalmos of the right eye and optic nerve hypoplasia and retinochoroidal coloboma in the left eye. She had a midfacial cleft and an episode of seizures and a stroke. magnetic resonance imaging showed a sphenopharyngeal meningoencephalocele. magnetic resonance angiography and cerebral angiography demonstrated a pattern consistent with moyamoya disease. CONCLUSIONS: This patient had a distinct syndrome of optic disk, retinochoroidal, and carotid circulation anomalies with midline cranial defects. The recognition and treatment of the vascular abnormalities and cranial defects may prevent complications such as strokes that may occur during or after general anesthesia.
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2/97. Demonstration of exclusive cilioretinal vascular system supplying the retina in man: vacant discs.

    PURPOSE: To report the fluorescein angiographic and Doppler ultrasonographic findings in a patient with apparent exclusive ciliary vascular supply of the retina of both eyes. methods: Case report. RESULTS: The ophthalmoscopic appearance of all arterial vessels emanating from both discs was consistent with a cilioretinal origin. Retinal veins also entered each disc peripherally near the margin, leaving the central part of each disc vacant. fluorescein angiography showed filling of all arterial vessels simultaneous with the early-phase choroidal background flush bilaterally. color and power Doppler ultrasonographic imaging demonstrated unequivocally the absence of central retinal vessels within the optic nerves. Both discs were normal in size and excavated with central glial tissue present. The clinical history of monocular, alternating episodes of failing vision with partial resolution and the retinal pigmentation patterns bilaterally were consistent with, though not conclusive for, previous episodes of serous retinal detachments. Coincident systemic anomalies consisted of small kidneys with reduced renal parenchyma discovered on ultrasonography, along with chronic interstitial nephritis. CONCLUSIONS: The ophthalmoscopic appearance of optic discs with apparent all-cilioretinal vascular supply has been reported previously, but proof of the absence of central retinal vessels requires Doppler ultrasonographic evidence corroborated by angiographic findings, as exemplified in our case report. We describe the association of this disc anomaly with renal parenchymal disease and its distinction from colobomatous defects.
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3/97. Dysgenesis of the internal carotid artery associated with transsphenoidal encephalocele: a neural crest syndrome?

    We describe two original cases of internal carotid artery dysgenesis associated with a malformative spectrum, which includes transsphenoidal encephalocele, optic nerve coloboma, hypopituitarism, and hypertelorism. Cephalic neural crest cells migrate to various regions in the head and neck where they contribute to the development of structures as diverse as the anterior skull base, the walls of the craniofacial arteries, the forebrain, and the face. Data suggest that the link between these rare malformations is abnormal neural crest development.
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4/97. Morning Glory syndrome. MR imaging.

    We present two cases of the Morning Glory Syndrome (MGS), with the most detailed MR images to date of this rare congenital optic nerve dysplasia. Though the embryology of this syndrome remains controversial, we feel the MR appearance can be diagnostic of the non-familial syndrome and be reliably distinguished from the similar appearing optic disc coloboma, which may be genetically inherited. MR imaging also allows the most sensitive detection and characterization of any associated intracranial anomalies, thus enabling more accurate determination of prognosis for the patient and their family.
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5/97. CHARGE association-related ocular pathology in a newborn with partial trisomy 19q and partial monosomy 21q, from a maternal translocation (19;21) (q13.1;q22.3).

    We report a novel case of partial trisomy 19q and concomitant partial monosomy 21q, segregated from a maternal translocation (19;21) (q13.1;q22.3), identified by spectral karyotyping. Clinical examination revealed dysmorphic features of the face and limbs, cleft palate, bilateral colobomas with associated bilateral colobomatous optic nerve cysts, hearing loss, and a cardiac anomaly. At autopsy, the dysmorphic features and cleft palate were confirmed. The ocular histopathology is described in detail and the cardiac anomaly was further specified. The combination of phenotype features is diagnostic of the CHARGE (coloboma, heart malformation, atresia choanae, retarded growth and development, and/or CNS anomalies, genital hypoplasia, ear anomalies and/or deafness) association. This case also has some phenotypic features in common with previous cases of partial trisomy 19q. The importance of a complete autopsy in cases with multiple congenital anomalies and/or genetic abnormalities is emphasized. This will allow optimal genetic counseling and contribute to our understanding of developmental biology.
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6/97. Homonucleotide expansion and contraction mutations of PAX2 and inclusion of Chiari 1 malformation as part of renal-coloboma syndrome.

    Renal-coloboma syndrome, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by colobomatous eye defects, vesicoureteral reflux, and abnormal kidneys, results from mutations in PAX2. The purpose of this study was to identify mutations in PAX2 and understand the associated patient phenotypes. We report a severely affected girl and a mildly affected mother and daughter, all of whom have PAX2 homoguanine tract (7 G) missense mutations. The mother and daughter have optic nerve colobomas and the daughter has vesicoureteral reflux. The severely affected girl developed renal failure and has bilateral colobomatous eye defects. Additionally, this girl developed hydrocephalus associated with platybasia and a Chiari 1 malformation. We examined genomic dna from these individuals by SSCP and sequencing. The mother and daughter had a novel mutation: a contraction in a string of 7 G's to 6 G's in one allele of PAX2, leading to a premature stop codon two amino acids downstream. The severely affected girl had an expansion to 8 G's, leading to a premature stop codon 27 amino acids downstream. The 8 G expansion has been found in other patients without brain anomalies and has occurred spontaneously in a mouse model, PAX2(1Neu). We expand the known phenotype associated with mutations in PAX2 to include brain malformations. The homoguanine tract in PAX2 is a hot spot for spontaneous expansion or contraction mutations and demonstrates the importance of homonucleotide tract mutations in human malformation syndromes.
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7/97. Progressive optic nerve cupping and neural rim decrease in a patient with bilateral autosomal dominant optic nerve colobomas.

    PURPOSE: To document progressive optic nerve cupping and neural rim decrease in a patient with normal intraocular pressures and bilateral autosomal dominant optic nerve colobomas. methods: The ophthalmology records, stereoscopic fundus photographs, and visual fields of a 27-year-old woman with familial (autosomal dominant) optic nerve colobomas were reviewed. The appearance of the optic nerves was documented over a 13-year period (1985 to 1998). RESULTS: Despite repeatedly normal intraocular pressures, the patient showed progressive optic nerve cupping and neural rim decrease in both eyes. Visual field testing was available over a 5-year period (1993 to 1998) and was abnormal, but no progression was seen. CONCLUSIONS: This case of progressive cupping and neural rim decrease in a patient with autosomal dominant optic nerve coloboma in both eyes may provide insight into the optic nerve cupping associated with normal tension glaucoma. Careful follow-up of patients with optic disk colobomas or patients is indicated to detect possible optic nerve changes or field loss.
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8/97. optic nerve coloboma with retinal degeneration associated with cystic microphthalmia of the other eye.

    In a seventy-five-year old man an optic nerve coloboma with generalised retinal degeneration associated with a cystic microphthalmia of the other eye is described. The MR imaging revealed the existence of a left microphthalmic eye with a lower lid cyst. From the other eye an optic nerve coloboma with a cystic ectasia of the coloboma area freely open to the vitreous cavity was apparent. The ERG recorded from this eye was extinguished.
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9/97. Electroretinogram and visual-evoked potentials in children with optic nerve coloboma.

    The aim was to evaluate alterations in Visual-evoked potentials (VEP) and Electroretinogram (ERG) and discover whether these tests are useful for determining residual visual acuity in cases where a patient is unable to collaborate. Flash and, when possible, Transient Pattern Reversal Visual-evoked potentials and Maximal Response ERG were recorded in 8 children (under three years old) affected by different aspects of optic nerve coloboma. None of them had visual acuity evaluated because of poor collaboration. All examinations were carried out using skin electrodes. Amplitude of the a and b component of ERG, amplitude, morphology and latency of the major components of Flash VEP and amplitude and latency of P100 Pattern Reversal VEP were evaluated. Four of the patients were examined three years later and visual acuity was compared with the previous electrofunctional results. Alterations in ERG were found only in the case of significant retinal anomalies (great coloboma, retinal detachment), huge alterations were found in both Flash VEP and in Pattern Reversal VEP. The retrospective study of VEP traces and visual acuity showed a good correlation between electrofunctional data and visual capability. Electrofucntional examinations can identify important conductive retinocortical anomalies. The possibility of correlating electrophysiological results with residual visual acuity is important for rehabilitative management in such optic disc malformations.
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10/97. Apple peel atresia in association with bilateral colobomatous malformation of the optic nerve heads, dysmorphic features, and learning disability - a new syndrome?

    Apple peel atresia of the small bowel is a rare congenital cause of intestinal obstruction. This case report describes a male patient with apple peel atresia and bilateral colobomatous malformation of the optic nerve heads in association with dysmorphic features and learning disabilities. In the absence of a positive family history, we propose that this collection of clinical findings could be due to a new dominant mutation or chromosomal microdeletion.
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