Cases reported "Colonic Neoplasms"

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1/12. Sigmoid colon cancer associated with primary hyperparathyroidism: report of a case.

    We present herein a case of sigmoid colon cancer associated with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP). PHP is known to be associated with malignancy, and decreased intracolonic calcium (Ca) resulting from increased vitamin d (VD) levels may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis. PHP was diagnosed in this patient by preoperative screening blood chemistry examination. The blood level of intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) was elevated and a parathyroid gland scintigram demonstrated abnormal uptake near the right lower lobe of the thyroid. There was no evidence of bone metastasis, and a sigmoid colectomy was performed with curative intent. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course without a critical elevation of the serum Ca level. This case report suggests that a relationship exists between PHP and colon cancer, and the possible mechanisms of this association are presented in our discussion.
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ranking = 1
keywords = carcinogenesis
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2/12. Genetic analysis of multiple sporadic colon carcinomas from a single patient.

    At least two separate genetic pathways of carcinogenesis in sporadic colon cancer involving the accumulation of mutations at various genetic loci have been described. About 15% of sporadic colorectal carcinomas arise via a mechanism associated with microsatellite instability (MSI) and mutations in transforming growth factor beta receptor II (TGFbetaRII), insulin-like growth factor ii receptor (IGFIIR) and BAX, whilst the remaining 85% are associated with aneuploidy and gross chromosomal rearrangements. An 81-year-old woman had a sigmoid colon carcinoma resected and 18 months later developed two additional carcinomas of the caecum and transverse colon. To investigate whether there was a common genetic mechanism of carcinogenesis for the three lesions, MSI status was assessed, TGFbetaRII, IGFIIR and BAX were analysed for mutations and protein expression of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) and p53 were studied using immunohistochemistry. The caecal and transverse colonic carcinomas were both MSI positive but different mutations were identified in each lesion. No genetic abnormalities were identified in the sigmoid colonic carcinoma. This suggests that each carcinoma arose via a separate genetic mechanism of carcinogenesis.
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ranking = 3
keywords = carcinogenesis
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3/12. Superficial depressed early carcinoma that developed into protuberant advanced carcinoma in the transverse colon.

    A screening colonoscopic examination in a 70-year-old man revealed a nonpolypoid type superficial depressed early carcinoma, about 2cm in diameter, in the transverse colon. The lesion was not resected and was observed because of coexisting nonresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Fifteen months later, follow-up examinations revealed a polypoid type protuberant advanced carcinoma, about 6 cm in diameter, at the same site. Because complete response of the HCC had been induced by transarterial embolization, the colon carcinoma was operatively resected. There is an indefinite concept that colorectal carcinomas develop without substantial morphological changes, and no superficial depressed carcinoma that developed into a protuberant type advanced carcinoma has been reported. The case reported here provides evidence that some polypoid carcinomas arise from superficial depressed precursors. There is some intermingling between the two postulated colorectal carcinogenic pathways, the conventional polypoid pathway named the "adenoma-carcinoma sequence", and the nonpolypoid pathway, including so-called "de-novo" carcinogenesis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = carcinogenesis
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4/12. Two metachronous tumors in the radiotherapy fields of a patient with Li-Fraumeni syndrome.

    A woman with a family history of brain tumors in her daughter and sister presented with a breast cancer. She subsequently developed two metachronous primary tumors: a small-cell lung cancer and a colon carcinoma. These tumors arose within the internal mammary radiotherapy field and within the field irradiated for ovariolysis. The p53 gene was analyzed in whole blood lymphocytes using a functional assay developed in yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae, which tests the transcriptional competence of p53. dna from the colon cancer cells was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. The patient had a germline-inactivating p53 mutation, confirming the diagnosis of li-fraumeni syndrome (LFS). The colon tumor and the lung tumor both conserved the mutant p53 allele but had lost the wild-type allele. This observation and the experimental data suggest an abnormal sensitivity of LFS patients to radiogenic carcinogenesis. The indications and extent of radiotherapy in patients with a clinical or molecular diagnosis of LFS should be discussed individually and should take into account the risk of secondary neoplasms arising in the radiation fields.
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ranking = 1
keywords = carcinogenesis
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5/12. Non-life-threatening sepsis: report of two cases.

    streptococcus bovis is one of the nonenterococcal species included among the streptococci group D. It is part of the normal bowel flora in humans and animals, but it is also responsible for infectious diseases (10-15% of all cases of bacterial endocarditis). Many cases of bacteremia and metastatic abscesses (spleen, liver, soft tissues, bone, meninges, endocardium) caused by S. bovis were reported as associated with digestive tract diseases, mainly colonic disease, and, in particular colonic neoplasms, or chronic liver diseases. A role in carcinogenesis has been suggested for this microorganism. The authors report two cases of S. bovis sepsis, one associated with colonic neoplasm and the other with liver cirrhosis and gastric carcinoma. Discussion is focused on probable mechanisms that favor gastric colonization and systemic diffusion of S. bovis from the gut in patients with gastrointestinal neoplasms or chronic liver disease and provides clinical recommendations for patients with S. bovis infections.
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ranking = 1
keywords = carcinogenesis
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6/12. Synchronous ileal and colonic adenocarcinomas associated with Crohn's disease: report of a case with a focus on genetic alterations and carcinogenesis.

    patients with Crohn's disease have an increased risk of developing intestinal tumours. However, the carcinogenic mechanisms remain poorly understood. To address this question, this report describes an unusual case of Crohn's disease complicated by synchronous small intestinal and colonic adenocarcinomas. Genetic events in both the tumours and their adjacent mucosae were evaluated and the tumorigenesis of these cancers is discussed.
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ranking = 4
keywords = carcinogenesis
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7/12. gamma-glutamyltransferase, a common marker of human epithelial tumors?

    Having previously established gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) as a marker of experimental carcinogenesis in rat liver, we investigated whether human tumors differ from their tissue or origin by showing a higher activity or different localization of this enzyme histochemically. We found such differences in each of the human carcinomas we examined. The presence of GGT activity in carcinomas arising in organs normally containing little (tongue) or no GGT activity (larynx, urinary bladder, and esophagus) clearly distinguished cancerous from normal epithelium. In the breast, colon and prostate, GGT activity was normally present in a defined anatomical distribution bordering luminal surfaces. Carcinomas arising from these tissues showed a loss of the normal pattern of activity and contained cells with almost homogenous GGT activity in the cytoplasm. Such differences clearly distinguished carcinomatous from normal epithelium in these organs. The increased GGT activity observed in all nine carcinomas arising from seven different organs suggests that GGT may be a common marker of human epithelial tumors and staining for GGT may become a useful tool in the detection of human epithelial neoplasms.
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ranking = 1
keywords = carcinogenesis
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8/12. colonic polyps and adenocarcinoma complicating ureterosigmoidostomy: report of a case.

    A case of bilateral juvenile polyps and unilateral adenocarcinoma at the ureterocolic junctions occurring 40 years after ureterosigmoidostomy for exstrophy of the bladder is reported. Although adenocarcinoma of colon at the anastomotic site represents an uncommon late complication of ureterosigmoidostomy, patients undergoing this form of urinary diversion have a risk of developing colonic carcinoma that is 100 to 550 times greater than the normal population. Moreover this complication is being reported with increasing frequency in the literature. Different pathogenetic factors may play a role in carcinogenesis, but none has been satisfactorily proven. We suggest the possibility that polyps developing at the site of a ureterocolic junction may represent precancerous lesions.
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ranking = 1
keywords = carcinogenesis
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9/12. The usefulness of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice to study human carcinogenesis.

    In the present study, we engrafted normal colonic epithelial and histologically diagnosed colonic adenomas from a familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patient into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice and subsequently examined them histologically and molecular biologically. Successful engraftment and metastasis was observed. The facts that human normal colonic epithelium and adenomatous polyps can take in SCID mice indicates the possibility that this human SCID mouse system will be useful for investigating the dynamics of human carcinogenesis in various tissues.
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ranking = 5
keywords = carcinogenesis
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10/12. Flat depressed early colon cancer--a case report.

    A flat depressed early colon cancer (FDEC) is characterized by non-polypoid growth pattern, no association of adenomatous tissues and a tendency of even small lesions toward submucosal invasion and lymph node metastasis. It supports de novo carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer, although most colorectal cancers arise in pre-existing adenoma (adenoma-carcinoma sequence). There have been few reports of small depressed cancers because of the difficulty in colonoscopic detection and the rapid development to ulcerating advanced cancers. We report a case of flat depressed early colon cancer confined to mucosa detected by indigo carmine contrast colonoscopy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = carcinogenesis
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