Cases reported "Coma"

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1/132. Application of a rheolytic thrombectomy device in the treatment of dural sinus thrombosis: a new technique.

    We present a novel application of a transvascular rheolytic thrombectomy system in the treatment of symptomatic dural sinus thrombosis in a 54-year-old woman with somnolence and left-sided weakness. The diagnosis of bilateral transverse and superior sagittal sinus thrombosis was made and the patient was treated with anticoagulant therapy. After an initial period of improvement, she became comatose and hemiplegic 8 days after presentation. After excluding intracerebral hemorrhage by MR imaging, we performed angiography and transfemoral venous thrombolysis with a hydrodynamic thrombectomy catheter, followed by intrasinus urokinase thrombolytic therapy over the course of 2 days. This technique resulted in dramatic sinus thrombolysis and near total neurologic recovery. Six months after treatment, the patient showed mild cognitive impairment and no focal neurologic deficit. Our preliminary experience suggests that this technique may play a significant role in the endovascular treatment of this potentially devastating disease.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cerebral
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2/132. Fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage after endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Case report.

    In recent years, endoscopic third ventriculostomy has become a well-established procedure for the treatment of various forms of noncommunicating hydrocephalus. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy is considered to be an easy and safe procedure. Complications have rarely been reported in the literature. The authors present a case in which the patient suffered a fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) after endoscopic third ventriculostomy. This 63-year-old man presented with confusion and drowsiness and was admitted in to the hospital in poor general condition. Computerized tomography scanning revealed an obstructive hydrocephalus caused by a tumor located in the cerebellopontine angle. An endoscopic third ventriculostomy was performed with the aid of a Fogarty balloon catheter. Some hours postoperatively, the patient became comatose. Computerized tomography scanning revealed a severe perimesencephalic-peripontine SAH and progressive hydrocephalus. Despite emergency external ventricular drainage, the patient died a few hours later. Although endoscopic third ventriculostomy is considered to be a simple and safe procedure, one should be aware that severe and sometimes fatal complications may occur. To avoid vascular injury, perforation of the floor of the third ventricle should be performed in the midline, halfway between the infundibular recess and the mammillary bodies, just behind the dorsum sellae.
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ranking = 0.043216607535794
keywords = ventricle
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3/132. Sudden death and cerebral anoxia in a young woman with congenital ostial stenosis of the left main coronary artery.

    We report a 36-year-old woman with ventricular fibrillation, subsequent sudden clinical cardiac death, and a prolonged brain anoxia. After a successful resuscitation coronary angiography revealed congenital ostial left main coronary artery (LMCA) stenosis. Surgical anastomosis of the left internal mammary artery (LIMA) to LAD led to a complete recovery. Postoperative electrophysiological examination, mainly programmed ventricular stimulation, failed to excite any rhythm disturbances. Cathet. Cardiovasc. Intervent. 48:67-70, 1999.
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ranking = 4
keywords = cerebral
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4/132. Encephalopathy complicating high-dose melphalan.

    High-dose melphalan (HDM) with peripheral blood stem cell transplant (PBSCT) is a common treatment for patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and more recently also with AL amyloidosis (ALA). We report two female patients with severe renal failure who underwent treatment with HDM for MM (patient 1) and ALA (patient 2). Both patients developed severe encephalopathy with generalised tonic-clonic seizures and a glasgow coma scale (GCS) of 3/15. Causes for coma such as infections, metabolic disturbances, cerebral ischaemia or haemorrhage were excluded. Patient 1 died on day 25 post transplant while comatose. Patient 2 recovered from her comatose state 18 days after transplantation. To our knowledge this is the first report on a possible role of high-dose melphalan in the development of encephalopathy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cerebral
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5/132. Prolonged coma due to cerebral fat embolism: report of two cases.

    Fat embolism syndrome remains a rare, but potentially life threatening complication of long bone fractures. The true incidence is difficult to assess as many cases remain undiagnosed. Cerebral involvement varies from confusion to encephalopathy with coma and seizures. Clinical symptoms and computed tomography are not always diagnostic, while magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive in the detection of a suspected brain embolism. Two cases of post-traumatic cerebral fat embolism, manifested by prolonged coma and diffuse cerebral oedema, are presented. The clinical course of the disease as well as the intensive care unit management are discussed.
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ranking = 6
keywords = cerebral
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6/132. ethylene glycol ingestion resulting in brainstem and midbrain dysfunction.

    INTRODUCTION: ethylene glycol toxicity has produced central nervous system abnormalities including coma, cerebral edema, and cranial nerve dysfunction. CASE REPORT: A 26-year-old male developed widespread brainstem and midbrain dysfunction with corresponding cranial computed tomography findings after ingesting ethylene glycol. The computed tomography scan which was obtained 3 days after ethylene glycol ingestion showed low density areas in the basal ganglia, thalami, midbrain, and upper pons. The neurologic findings in our patient reflected dysfunction of all the areas of hypodensity on the cranial computed tomography scan. A magnetic resonance imaging of the brain obtained 24 days after ingestion revealed bilateral putamen necrosis. The patient's neurologic sequelae resolved over the following 4 months.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cerebral
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7/132. Extensive subdural empyema treated with drainage and barbiturate therapy under intracranial pressure monitoring: case report.

    In subdural empyema (SDE), if the mass effect and vasogenic edema are not controlled, the brain can be fatally damaged. Massive SDE over the skull base often requires repeated surgical drainage for removal of accumulated pus. intracranial pressure (ICP) management until obliteration of the empyema is important to the improvement of clinical outcome. An 18-year-old man was admitted to our center in a nearly comatose state and with a mild fever. CT scan showed massive SDE extending to the skull base and parafalx. ICP was measured with a pressure transducer through an intraventricle tube. Repeated surgical drainage was performed while ICP was controlled with barbiturate therapy. He was discharged with no neurological deficits. In patients with an extensive SDE over the cerebral hemisphere, ICP control with barbiturate therapy may enhance the therapeutic effect of surgical drainage.
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ranking = 1.0432166075358
keywords = cerebral, ventricle
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8/132. The surgical treatment of heterotopic ossification at the elbow following long-term coma.

    Nine cases of heterotopic ossification at the elbow in seven patients who had a cerebral injury and prolonged coma were treated by excision of the extra-articular bone bridge from the humerus to the ulna. The bridge was either anterior or posterior, and did not involve the radius. The articular cartilage in all elbows showed no significant evidence of degeneration in spite of the prolonged immobility of the joints during the period of coma. Two of the patients also had resection of heterotopic bone about the hip joint which resulted in rapid reformation of bone. In all patients there was restoration of satisfactory function in the elbow operated on without reformation of bone. Follow-up was from ten months to 8.7 years.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cerebral
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9/132. Cerebral atrophy and convulsive seizures after recovery from cerebral edema and coma in a patient with fulminant hepatitis b.

    We report a 48-year-old woman who developed convulsive seizures and cerebral atrophy after recovery from fulminant hepatitis b with coma and cerebral edema at the acute stage. Neurological disturbances and cerebral signs are rare sequelae of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF); only a few cases have reported in the literature. Cortical laminar necrosis secondary to cerebral edema or delayed neuronal death due to toxic substances may have caused delayed brain atrophy and epileptogenesis.
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ranking = 8
keywords = cerebral
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10/132. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (58). Chronic cerebral paragonimiasis.

    A 36-year-old Korean man presented with a history of epilepsy. MR imaging of the brain revealed multiple conglomerated round nodules that were hypointense on both T1-and-T2 weighted images. These were located at the left temporal and occipital lobes and had surrounding encephalomalacia. CT scan confirmed the presence of large calcified nodules in the corresponding regions. These imaging findings were typical of chronic cerebral paragonimiasis.The clinical, CT and MR features of cerebral paragonimiasis are reviewed.
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ranking = 6
keywords = cerebral
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