Cases reported "Coma"

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1/94. Pseudo-subarachnoid hemorrhage: a rare neuroimaging pitfall.

    OBJECTIVE: We report an unusual case of the CT appearance of diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage in a patient with anoxic encephalopathy, a situation which neurosurgeons, neurologists, and neuroradiologists should be aware of. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A young man collapsed unconscious in jail after abusing an unknown quantity and variety of drugs. CT scan showed a picture compatible with diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage. INTERVENTION: As the patient had a Glasgow coma Score of 3 no heroic intervention was undertaken. An autopsy performed 40 hours after the initial ictus and 24 hours after death revealed no evidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage but gross and microscopic evidence of anoxic encephalopathy. CONCLUSION: Anoxic encephalopathy can mimic diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage on CT.
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2/94. Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia in hematologic complete remission.

    The authors describe the cases of three patients affected by acute myeloid leukemia, in complete remission, who rapidly developed neurologic symptoms leading to death. Neither clinical characteristics, nor radiological or microbiological procedures, allowed an etiological diagnosis of the neurologic syndrome. Post-mortem examination of the brain showed both macroscopic and microscopic findings compatible with acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis. The difficulty in distinguishing this entity from other CNS disease-related complications (e.g. leukemia infiltration, drug toxicity, hemorrhages) should not lead to an underestimation of the true incidence of this complication. We believe that with more attention to the possibility of this complication there would probably be both a greater possibility of collecting clinical informations about the real impact of this dramatic disease and a stronger hope of finding the right treatment for it.
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3/94. Congenital neonatal myotonic dystrophy with persistent pulmonary hypertension and coma: a difficult diagnosis.

    The fulminant forms of congenital myotonic dystrophy, which rapidly lead to death, are difficult to diagnose. The case described illustrates the roles of persistent pulmonary hypertension in such a fatal form.
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4/94. Sudden death and cerebral anoxia in a young woman with congenital ostial stenosis of the left main coronary artery.

    We report a 36-year-old woman with ventricular fibrillation, subsequent sudden clinical cardiac death, and a prolonged brain anoxia. After a successful resuscitation coronary angiography revealed congenital ostial left main coronary artery (LMCA) stenosis. Surgical anastomosis of the left internal mammary artery (LIMA) to LAD led to a complete recovery. Postoperative electrophysiological examination, mainly programmed ventricular stimulation, failed to excite any rhythm disturbances. Cathet. Cardiovasc. Intervent. 48:67-70, 1999.
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keywords = death
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5/94. Hypoglycemic coma masquerading thyrotoxic storm.

    A 59-year-old woman was hospitalized in hypoglycemic coma. Although hypoglycemia was promptly reversed, she was in a somnolent, restless state with tachycardia, tremor, profuse sweating, and high body temperature. Thyrotoxic storm was highly suspected and vigorous antithyroid regimens gradually brought her up to normal mental and cardiovascular states in several days. However, profound generalized myopathy necessitated the maintenance with a respirator. One month later, an episode of angina pectoris was followed by generalized convulsion, coma, and death in a few days. neuroimaging study disclosed posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. This case is instructive in that hypoglycemic coma may masquerade the major symptomatology of thyrotoxic storm, and that profound myopathy and angiopathic or angiospastic processes of the brain and the heart may interfere with the outcome.
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6/94. High-efficiency dialysis for carbamazepine overdose.

    BACKGROUND: carbamazepine intoxication is associated with seizures, coma, arrhythmias, and death. In acute intoxications, charcoal hemoperfusion enhances removal of the drug but is associated with thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy, hypothermia, and hypocalcemia. Alternatively, high-efficiency hemodialysis can be used without the side effects of charcoal hemoperfusion. CASE REPORT: We report an 18-month-old comatose, convulsing child with plasma carbamazepine 27 microg/mL treated with high efficiency hemodialysis. Therapeutic carbamazepine levels were obtained after 4.5 hours of high-efficiency hemodialysis. The patient developed no untoward side effects, improved clinically, and was subsequently discharged home without sequelae. We conclude that high-efficiency hemodialysis is a safe, effective alternative to charcoal hemoperfusion in the pediatric population.
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keywords = death
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7/94. The prognostic value of the non-protein nitrogen (NPN) content in the serum and the cerebrospinal fluid.

    The amounts of total protein and nonprotein nitrogen (NPN), together with the pH were determined in serum and lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of controls and comatose patients before and after death. The serum/CSF ratio of NPN was calculated. Under normal conditions the value of this ratio is 1.65. The decrease of this value is a sign of worsening of barrier functions. If the NPN content of the serum and CSF becomes identical, i.e., when the serum/CSF ratio approaches or even equals 1.0, and at the same time the pH decreases in the CSF, then the prognosis is hopeless.
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keywords = death
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8/94. Postoperative coma induced by hyponatremia after laparoscopy--a case report.

    hyponatremia is a common clinical entity which may occur during the course of many medical illnesses. However disastrous sequelae or even death may develop in young, generally healthy patients who receive simple elective surgery. Here we present a case of a 34-year-old female, without past history of cardiopulmonary or renal disease, after undergoing laparoscopic surgery developed mental status changes and lapsed into coma on the second postoperative day. She was found to have a serum sodium level of 110 mEq/L. After careful treatment and a protracted hospital stay, the patient recovered uneventfully. The pathophysiology of postoperative hyponatremia is discussed and attention is called to the special vulnerability of menstruant women who carry a much increased risk of mortality and morbidity associated with hyponatremia.
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9/94. coma mimicking brain death following baclofen overdose.

    baclofen toxicity can be a cause of profound coma with brainstem dysfunction mimicking brain death, and is mainly a clinical diagnosis. Measuring plasma levels is not always possible and may be misleading. Imaging results are usually normal. electroencephalography may show a pattern of burst suppression. At present no effective specific therapy is available. However, as demonstrated in our case, the prognosis can be good even in severe cases, provided it is recognized early enough, and appropriate supportive measures are instituted.
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ranking = 5
keywords = death
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10/94. Isolated medulla oblongata function after severe traumatic brain injury.

    The objective was to report the first pathologically confirmed case of partly functionally preserved medulla oblongata in a patient with catastrophic traumatic brain injury.A patient is described with epidural haematoma with normal breathing and blood pressure and a retained coughing reflex brought on only by catheter suctioning of the carina. Multiple contusions in the thalami and pons were found but the medulla oblongata was spared at necropsy. In conclusion, medulla oblongata function may persist despite rostrocaudal deterioration. This comatose state ("medulla man") closely mimics brain death.
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