Cases reported "Coma"

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1/156. Favourable prognosis of prolonged coma associated with large doses of diazepam in severe tetanus.

    A report is made of five tetanus patients who were treated with large repetitive doses of diazepam and became comatose. The period of impaired consciousness varied from thirteen to twenty-one days. None had significant respiratory depression, and full recovery occurred in all. It is proposed that diazepam-induced prolonged coma should be regarded as a side-effect rather than a toxic effect and should caution rather than contra-indicate further use of large doses of the drug in the management of tetanus.
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2/156. Pseudo-subarachnoid hemorrhage: a rare neuroimaging pitfall.

    OBJECTIVE: We report an unusual case of the CT appearance of diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage in a patient with anoxic encephalopathy, a situation which neurosurgeons, neurologists, and neuroradiologists should be aware of. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A young man collapsed unconscious in jail after abusing an unknown quantity and variety of drugs. CT scan showed a picture compatible with diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage. INTERVENTION: As the patient had a Glasgow coma Score of 3 no heroic intervention was undertaken. An autopsy performed 40 hours after the initial ictus and 24 hours after death revealed no evidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage but gross and microscopic evidence of anoxic encephalopathy. CONCLUSION: Anoxic encephalopathy can mimic diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage on CT.
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3/156. Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia in hematologic complete remission.

    The authors describe the cases of three patients affected by acute myeloid leukemia, in complete remission, who rapidly developed neurologic symptoms leading to death. Neither clinical characteristics, nor radiological or microbiological procedures, allowed an etiological diagnosis of the neurologic syndrome. Post-mortem examination of the brain showed both macroscopic and microscopic findings compatible with acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis. The difficulty in distinguishing this entity from other CNS disease-related complications (e.g. leukemia infiltration, drug toxicity, hemorrhages) should not lead to an underestimation of the true incidence of this complication. We believe that with more attention to the possibility of this complication there would probably be both a greater possibility of collecting clinical informations about the real impact of this dramatic disease and a stronger hope of finding the right treatment for it.
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4/156. Acute isoniazid intoxication: seizures, acidosis and coma.

    isoniazid (INH) is the most widely used of the antituberculosis drugs. An acute overdose is potentially fatal and is characterized by the clinical triad of repetitive seizures unresponsive to the usual anticonvulsants, metabolic acidosis with a high anion gap and coma. The diagnosis of INH overdose should be considered in any patient who presents with an unexplained metabolic acidosis and convulsions. The cornerstone of therapy consists in pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and the dose should be equal to the amount of INH ingested. When conservative therapy fails or in case of renal insufficiency, dialysis must be considered. Severe central nervous toxicity can also be caused by chronic ingestion of higher than therapeutic doses of INH. In those cases pyridoxine-therapy can be useful as well. In the present paper a case of acute overdose of INH is reported, followed by a review of the literature.
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ranking = 1872.2441825028
keywords = overdose, drug
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5/156. Metabolic acidosis and coma following a severe acetaminophen overdose.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a case of metabolic acidosis and coma in a severe acetaminophen overdose. CASE SUMMARY: A 29-year-old white woman was admitted to the emergency department with a diminished level of consciousness and metabolic acidosis. The toxicology screen revealed a serum acetaminophen concentration of 1072 microg/mL, and she was consequently treated with intravenous acetylcysteine. Despite the elevated concentration, the patient did not manifest signs of hepatotoxicity. DISCUSSION: Metabolic acidosis and coma are rare manifestations in acetaminophen overdoses. In published case reports, severe acetaminophen ingestion independently causes metabolic acidosis and coma in the absence of hepatotoxicity. The mechanism by which metabolic acidosis occurs is not clearly defined. Studies conducted on animals demonstrated that in severe overdoses, acetaminophen may cause lactic acidosis by inhibiting mitochondrial respiration. The mechanism by which acetaminophen can cause coma is still unknown. CONCLUSIONS: Severe acetaminophen overdoses can independently cause metabolic acidosis and coma in the absence of hepatotoxicity.
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ranking = 4989.9844866741
keywords = overdose
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6/156. Acute isoniazid neurotoxicity during preventive therapy.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe rare side effects of treatment with isoniazid. DESIGN: Descriptive case report. SETTING: Medical intensive care unit in a university medical center. PATIENT: A 14-yr old previously healthy girl receiving preventive isoniazid therapy who suddenly developed generalized tonic-clonic seizures and coma. INTERVENTIONS: Patient was sedated and mechanically ventilated. She also received pyridoxine intravenously. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: An isoniazid overdose was not confirmed. Computed tomography of the brain and electroencephalogram revealed nothing abnormal. seizures gradually disappeared within 2 hrs after sedation and treatment with pyridoxine. The patient was discharged on day 14 without consequences and has been well for 10 mos. No seizures reappeared after isoniazid was discontinued. CONCLUSIONS: We caution against possible isoniazid neurotoxicity in healthy individuals using recommended preventive doses.
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ranking = 623.74806083426
keywords = overdose
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7/156. acyclovir induced coma in the intensive care unit.

    A 73-year-old man with multiorgan failure requiring mechanical ventilation and haemodialysis developed herpes labialis infection during his stay in the ICU. This was treated with enteral acyclovir. He developed persistent neurologic impairment soon after acyclovir administration, which, over the course of seven days, progressed to coma, the aetiology of which was unclear. The computed tomograph (CT) of the brain and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination was normal. The electroencephalogram (EEG) showed generalized slowing. The possibility of acyclovir neurotoxicity was considered and the drug was discontinued. Haemodialysis was instituted and the patient made a complete neurological recovery. We believe that this is the first reported case of coma due to enteral acyclovir.
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8/156. High-efficiency dialysis for carbamazepine overdose.

    BACKGROUND: carbamazepine intoxication is associated with seizures, coma, arrhythmias, and death. In acute intoxications, charcoal hemoperfusion enhances removal of the drug but is associated with thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy, hypothermia, and hypocalcemia. Alternatively, high-efficiency hemodialysis can be used without the side effects of charcoal hemoperfusion. CASE REPORT: We report an 18-month-old comatose, convulsing child with plasma carbamazepine 27 microg/mL treated with high efficiency hemodialysis. Therapeutic carbamazepine levels were obtained after 4.5 hours of high-efficiency hemodialysis. The patient developed no untoward side effects, improved clinically, and was subsequently discharged home without sequelae. We conclude that high-efficiency hemodialysis is a safe, effective alternative to charcoal hemoperfusion in the pediatric population.
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ranking = 2495.992243337
keywords = overdose, drug
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9/156. coma mimicking brain death following baclofen overdose.

    baclofen toxicity can be a cause of profound coma with brainstem dysfunction mimicking brain death, and is mainly a clinical diagnosis. Measuring plasma levels is not always possible and may be misleading. Imaging results are usually normal. electroencephalography may show a pattern of burst suppression. At present no effective specific therapy is available. However, as demonstrated in our case, the prognosis can be good even in severe cases, provided it is recognized early enough, and appropriate supportive measures are instituted.
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ranking = 2494.992243337
keywords = overdose
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10/156. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB): a newer drug of abuse.

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is an illicitly marketed substance that has recently gained popularity among body builders and party attendees as a drug of abuse. GHB is a depressant that acts on the central nervous system. It is purported as a strength enhancer, euphoriant and aphrodisiac and is one of several agents reported as being used as a "date rape" drug. Because of its central nervous system depressant effects, GHB can be lethal when combined with alcohol or other depressants. Currently, there is no accepted medical use for GHB, and the U.S. food and Drug Administration has prohibited its manufacture and sale. Clinicians should be familiar with the typical clinical presentation of GHB and its adverse effects. In addition, patients should be warned of its potential toxicity and be cautioned to avoid the use of GHB.
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keywords = drug
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