Cases reported "Coma"

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11/237. Predicting outcome from coma: man-in-the-barrel syndrome as potential pitfall.

    The glasgow coma scale motor score is often used in predicting outcome after hypoxic-ischemic coma. Judicious care should be exerted when using this variable in predicting outcome in patients with coma following hypotension since borderzone infarction can obscure the clinical picture. We describe a patient who underwent skull base surgery for a schwannoma of the left facial nerve. The operation, which lasted for 10 h, was conducted under controlled hypotension. After the intervention the patient remained comatose with absent arm movements upon painful stimuli. An absent motor score usually carries a poor prognosis. However, magnetic resonance inversion recovery imaging of the brain showed bilateral hyperintense lesions in the arm-hand area indicative of borderzone ischemic damage. The patient received optimal supportive care and after 17 days he regained consciousness with 'man-in-the-barrel syndrome', which also further improved over time.
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12/237. guillain-barre syndrome occurring in two women after ketoacidosic comatose state disclosing an insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    We report two women who presented with a guillain-barre syndrome just after a ketoacidosic comatose state disclosing an insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. One had characteristic clinical signs and the other had major motor involvement. At neurophysiologic investigations, one had typical demyelinating neuropathy whereas the second had mainly axonal degeneration. At ultrastructural examination of a peripheral nerve biopsy, features of macrophage-associated demyelination were present in both nerve specimens, thus confirming the diagnosis of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, i.e., guillain-barre syndrome. Prominent axonal involvement was also present in the motor nerves of the second patient. insulin therapy had to be permanently continued and these two cases are quite different from the transient diabetes sometimes observed in certain cases of guillain-barre syndrome. Both the latter and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus probably have auto-immune mechanisms. It is likely that in our two patients both auto-immune diseases were triggered by a common event. Such cases of guillain-barre syndrome have to be distinguished from other acute diabetic neuropathies.
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13/237. Mismatch negativity and N100 monitoring: potential clinical value and methodological advances.

    Continuous long-term recording of brainstem (BAEPs), middle-latency (MLAEPs) and long-latency auditory evoked potentials, including the mismatch negativity (MMN), brings additional information on the immediate functional state and the outcome of patients in coma or recovering after surgery, in relation with clinical observations and therapeutics. A recently designed monitoring system is introduced, aimed at the continuous recording of late auditory potentials (N100 and MMN) as well as BAEPs and MLAEPs. Specific methodological aspects are emphasized. Long-term monitoring data from one patient recorded in the recovery room after surgery are displayed, allowing an illustration of the techniques used and of the problems raised.
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14/237. myxedema coma of both primary and secondary origin, with non-classic presentation and extremely elevated creatine kinase.

    myxedema coma is a rare, often fatal endocrine emergency that concerns elderly patients with long-standing primary hypothyroidism; myxedema coma of central origin is exceedingly rare. Here, we report a 37-year-old woman in whom classical symptoms of hypothyroidism had been absent. Six years earlier, she had severe obstetric hemorrhage and, shortly after, two subsequent episodes of pericardial effusion. On the day of admission, pericardiocentesis was performed for the third episode of pericardial effusion. Because of the subsequent grave arrhythmias and unconsciousness, she was transferred to our ICU. Prior to the endocrine consultation, a silent myocardial infarction had been suspected, based on the extremely high serum levels of creatine kinase (CK) and isoenzyme CK-MB. However, based on thyroid sonography, pituitary computed tomography, elevated titers of antithyroid antibodies and pituitary stimulation tests, the final diagnosis was myxedema coma of dual origin: an atrophic variant of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and post-necrotic pituitary atrophy (Sheehan syndrome). Substitutive therapy caused a prompt clinical amelioration and normalization of CK levels. Our patient is the first case of myxedema coma of double etiology, and illustrates how its presentation deviates markedly from the one endocrinologists and physicians at ICU are prepared to encounter. In addition, cardiac problems as those of our patient should not discourage from substitutive treatment (using L-thyroxine and the gastrointestinal route of absorption), if the age is relatively low.
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keywords = unconsciousness, unconscious, consciousness
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15/237. Extensive subdural empyema treated with drainage and barbiturate therapy under intracranial pressure monitoring: case report.

    In subdural empyema (SDE), if the mass effect and vasogenic edema are not controlled, the brain can be fatally damaged. Massive SDE over the skull base often requires repeated surgical drainage for removal of accumulated pus. intracranial pressure (ICP) management until obliteration of the empyema is important to the improvement of clinical outcome. An 18-year-old man was admitted to our center in a nearly comatose state and with a mild fever. CT scan showed massive SDE extending to the skull base and parafalx. ICP was measured with a pressure transducer through an intraventricle tube. Repeated surgical drainage was performed while ICP was controlled with barbiturate therapy. He was discharged with no neurological deficits. In patients with an extensive SDE over the cerebral hemisphere, ICP control with barbiturate therapy may enhance the therapeutic effect of surgical drainage.
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16/237. Pure acute subdural haematoma without subarachnoid haemorrhage caused by rupture of internal carotid artery aneurysm.

    A 52-year-old female presented with disturbance of consciousness and clinical signs of tentorial herniation. Computed tomography showed a pure acute subdural haematoma (SDH) over the left convexity without subarachnoid haemorrhage. cerebral angiography showed a saccular aneurysm at the junction of the left internal carotid artery and the posterior communicating artery. Surgery to remove the haematoma and clip the aneurysm showed the rupture point was located in the anterior petroclinoid fold (subdural space). The patient recovered without neurological deficits. Pure SDH caused by ruptured aneurysm is rare. rupture of an aneurysm adhered to either the dura or falx and located in the subdural space may cause pure SDH. Therefore, ruptured intracranial aneurysm should be considered as a cause of non-traumatic SDH. Immediate removal of the SDH and aneurysmal clipping is recommended in such patients, even those in poor neurological condition.
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17/237. Isolated medulla oblongata function after severe traumatic brain injury.

    The objective was to report the first pathologically confirmed case of partly functionally preserved medulla oblongata in a patient with catastrophic traumatic brain injury.A patient is described with epidural haematoma with normal breathing and blood pressure and a retained coughing reflex brought on only by catheter suctioning of the carina. Multiple contusions in the thalami and pons were found but the medulla oblongata was spared at necropsy. In conclusion, medulla oblongata function may persist despite rostrocaudal deterioration. This comatose state ("medulla man") closely mimics brain death.
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18/237. Prolonged coma and loss of brainstem reflexes following amitriptyline overdose.

    Severe tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) overdose is generally manifested by cardiovascular and/or central nervous system toxicity. Although the majority of patients who are comatose following these overdoses regain consciousness within 24 h, this case had 5-days of coma with associated loss of brainstem reflexes. Severe central nervous system depression can occur as a sole manifestation of TCA overdose without concomitant cardiovascular toxicity.
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keywords = consciousness
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19/237. Auditory brainstem response and temporal bone pathology findings in a brain-dead infant.

    The criteria for assessing adult brain death have been already established, but those for infant brain death have not been yet established in japan. We report auditory brainstem response (ABR) and postmortem pathology of the temporal bone and brain of a brain-dead 9-month-old female. During the comatose state, her ABR showed only waves I and II bilaterally. autopsy revealed the presence of a left cerebellar astrocytoma, herniation and anoxic encephalopathy. The pathological examination of the temporal bone revealed the destruction of the inner ear particularly on the left side. In the auditory pathway of brain-dead patients, degeneration occurs first in the cerebrum, followed by the cochlear nerve. Thus, ABR is one of the useful means to assess brain death even in infants.
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20/237. Coma and seizures due to severe hyponatremia and water intoxication in an adult with intranasal desmopressin therapy for nocturnal enuresis.

    Desmopressin, a synthetic analogue of the antidiuretic hormone, is an effective medication for primary nocturnal enuresis for both children and adults. Its safety is well established. Although it has a favorable side effect profile, because of its pharmacological effect, intranasal desmopressin can rarely induce water intoxication with profound hyponatremia if given without adequate restriction of water intake. The authors describe an adult patient with water intoxication and severe hyponatremia accompanied by loss of consciousness and seizures after 2-day intranasal administration of desmopressin. The present and the previously reported cases emphasize the need for greater awareness of the development of this serious and potentiallyfatal complication. In addition, to adjust the drug to the lowest required dosage, adequate restriction of water intake is recommended, and serum levels of sodium should be measured periodically to allow for early detection of water intoxication and hyponatremia.
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keywords = consciousness
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