Cases reported "Coma"

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1/55. Early rebleeding from intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: report of 20 cases and review of the literature.

    OBJECT: In this study the authors sought to estimate the frequency, seriousness, and delay of rebleeding in a homogeneous series of 20 patients whom they treated between May 1987 and May 1997 for arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) that were revealed by intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). The natural history of intracranial dural AVFs remains obscure. In many studies attempts have been made to evaluate the risk of spontaneous hemorrhage, especially as a function of the pattern of venous drainage: a higher occurrence of bleeding was reported in AVFs with retrograde cortical venous drainage, with an overall estimated rate of 1.8% per year in the largest series in the literature. However, very few studies have been designed to establish the risk of rebleeding, an omission that the authors seek to remedy. methods: Presenting symptoms in the 20 patients (17 men and three women, mean age 54 years) were acute headache in 12 patients (60%), acute neurological deficit in eight (40%), loss of consciousness in five (25%), and generalized seizures in one (5%). Results of the clinical examination were normal in five patients and demonstrated a neurological deficit in 12 and coma in three. Computerized tomography scanning revealed intracranial bleeding in all cases (15 intraparenchymal hematomas, three subarachnoid hemorrhages, and two subdural hematomas). A diagnosis of AVF was made with the aid of angiographic studies in 19 patients, whereas it was a perioperative discovery in the remaining patient. There were 12 Type III and eight Type IV AVFs according to the revised classification of Djindjian and Merland, which meant that all AVFs in this study had retrograde cortical venous drainage. The mean duration between the first hemorrhage and treatment was 20 days. Seven patients (35%) presented with acute worsening during this delay due to radiologically proven early rebleeding. Treatment consisted of surgery alone in 10 patients, combined embolization and surgery in eight, embolization only in one, and stereotactic radiosurgery in one. Three patients died, one worsened, and in 16 (80%) neurological status improved, with 15 of 16 AVFs totally occluded on repeated angiographic studies (median follow up 10 months). CONCLUSIONS: The authors found that AVFs with retrograde cortical venous drainage present a high risk of early rebleeding (35% within 2 weeks after the first hemorrhage), with graver consequences than the first hemorrhage. They therefore advocate complete and early treatment in all cases of AVF with cortical venous drainage revealed by an ICH.
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2/55. Preservation of the brainstem auditory evoked potential in non-convulsive status epilepticus.

    Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) were recorded from a patient simultaneously experiencing non-convulsive generalized status epilepticus (NGSE). Waves I, III and V were normal but all subsequent waves were absent. This finding indicates that structures within the brainstem adjacent to the generators for the BAEP are likely not affected by NGSE and also illustrates the resilient nature of the BAEP. This is the first report of the recording of an evoked potential during a naturally occurring generalized seizure.
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ranking = 27.419600235894
keywords = wave
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3/55. Auditory brainstem response and temporal bone pathology findings in a brain-dead infant.

    The criteria for assessing adult brain death have been already established, but those for infant brain death have not been yet established in japan. We report auditory brainstem response (ABR) and postmortem pathology of the temporal bone and brain of a brain-dead 9-month-old female. During the comatose state, her ABR showed only waves I and II bilaterally. autopsy revealed the presence of a left cerebellar astrocytoma, herniation and anoxic encephalopathy. The pathological examination of the temporal bone revealed the destruction of the inner ear particularly on the left side. In the auditory pathway of brain-dead patients, degeneration occurs first in the cerebrum, followed by the cochlear nerve. Thus, ABR is one of the useful means to assess brain death even in infants.
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4/55. Type II (adult onset) citrullinaemia: clinical pictures and the therapeutic effect of liver transplantation.

    OBJECTIVE: adult onset type II citrullinemia is an inherited disorder of amino acid metabolism caused by a deficiency of liver specific argininosuccinate synthetase activity. Most of the patients with this disease were reported in japan and therefore, this disease has not been well recognised outside this country. The detailed clinical pictures of the patients with type II citrullinaemia are reported and their outcomes after liver transplantation referred to. methods: Ten patients with this disease were evaluated. Seven of them underwent liver transplants using a graft obtained from a healthy family member. RESULTS: There were six men and four women; the age of onset of encephalopathy ranged from 17 to 51 years. The initial symptom in nine patients was sudden onset disturbance of consciousness, and one patient had long been regarded as having a chronic progressive psychotic illness. High concentrations of plasma citrulline and ammonia were commonly seen on admission. Although brain CT or MRI lacked any consistent findings, the EEG was abnormal in all patients, showing diffuse slow waves. Additionally, in five patients chronic pancreatitis preceded the onset of encephalopathy. After liver transplantation the metabolic abnormalities, including abnormal plasma concentrations of citrulline and ammonia, were immediately corrected and all neuropsychic symptoms soon disappeared, except for impaired cognitive function in one patient. Six out of these seven patients returned to their previous social lives, including work. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical concept of adult onset type II citrullinaemia coincides well with the range of hepatic encephalopathy, and liver transplantation is a very promising therapeutic approach.
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5/55. miller fisher syndrome with transient coma: comparison with Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis.

    We herein report a 4-year-old boy with miller fisher syndrome (MFS) who presented with transient coma in addition to the typical triad of internal and external ophthalmoplegia, cerebellar ataxia and areflexia after an influenza type B infection. The electroencephalogram findings revealed intermittently generalized slow wave bursts. The cerebrospinal fluid revealed high protein and a lack of any cellular response. The serum anti-GQ1b IgG antibody was elevated in the acute phase and disappeared in the convalescent phase. The transient coma with the triad of MFS in this patient indicated an extended brainstem lesion including a reticular formation, which is also the responsible lesion of Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis (BBE), but the magnetic resonance imaging repeatedly showed no abnormal finding. Our patient suggested the involvement of central nervous system in addition to the peripheral nerve injury in MFS. He also suggested that MFS and BBE may belong to the same group of disorders as syndrome of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and areflexia (SOAA).
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keywords = wave
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6/55. Long lasting impaired cerebral blood flow after ecstasy intoxication.

    Four hours after having taken 10 ecstasy tablets a Grand Mal seizure occurred in a 19-year-old woman followed by coma, hyperthermia, tachycardia, tachypnea, and renal failure. After awakening she was oriented but presented with helplessness, disconcertion, hallucinations, panic attacks, and amnesic syndrome. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans of the brain were normal. [99Tc]-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO)-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), 20 days after intoxication, showed reduced, inhomogeneous, supratentorial tracer uptake bilaterally. electroencephalography (EEG) disclosed diffuse slowing and occasionally generalized sharp waves. valproic acid was begun. Except for slight amnesia, neuropsychological deficits had disappeared and [99Tc]-HMPAO-SPECT normalized, 29 days later. Decreased cortical blood flow was explained by vasoconstriction following ecstasy-induced depletion of serotonin.
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7/55. A case of area-specific stimulus-sensitive postanoxic myoclonus.

    The authors report a case of area-specific stimulus-sensitive postanoxic myoclonus and discuss possible pathophysiology. A 71-year-old man sustained cardiorespiratory arrest that lasted 10 minutes and remained unresponsive. On the first EEG obtained 8 hours after the arrest there was no cerebral electrical activity before stimulation of the trigeminal-innervated areas. Periorbital stimulation was associated with bursts of spike-wave activity and generalized myoclonic jerks, whereas other types of stimulation did not elicit any response. A second EEG obtained 32 hours later showed a nonreactive alpha coma pattern. The patient died 7 days after the arrest. Area-specific stimulus-sensitive postanoxic myoclonus is very rare. The regularity of generalized bursts of spike-wave activity (cortical response) in response to stimulation of trigeminal-innervated areas suggests that the resting EEG electrocerebral silence may have been a result of cortical suppression with disinhibition of stimulus-sensitive brainstem-generated myoclonus.
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ranking = 54.839200471788
keywords = wave
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8/55. coma associated with intense bursts of abnormal movements and long-lasting cognitive disturbances: an acute encephalopathy of obscure origin.

    We report six previously healthy children who several days after a prodromal illness had an acute encephalopathy that ran a biphasic course. It appears to constitute a recognizable syndrome with a good prognosis that can be differentiated from other encephalopathies of obscure origin as previously defined by Lyon et al. The active phase was dominated by coma or confusion and by abnormal movements, including disordered gesticulation and attacks of orofacial dyskinesia or limb dystonia associated with permanent rigidity and culminating in opisthotonic posturing. Repeated seizures were observed in only two patients. Permanent slow waves were recorded on the electroencephalogram in all patients, even during bursts of abnormal movements. cerebrospinal fluid and results of serologic studies were normal throughout the course of the disease, and attempts at viral isolation and antiviral antibody detection yielded negative results. Brain imaging either showed no abnormalities or suggested a moderate degree of brain edema. The recovery phase, which extended for several weeks, was characterized by a rapid return of motor function and persistent behavioral and cognitive disturbances. Nonverbal reasoning recovered long before verbal expression returned to normal. Four patients eventually recovered fully, whereas two had mild sequelae.
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ranking = 27.419600235894
keywords = wave
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9/55. Anoxic-ischemic alpha coma: prognostic significance of the incomplete variant.

    The prognostic significance of post-anoxic-ischemic alpha coma (AC) is controversial. We recorded somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and performed serial electroencephalography (EEG) in a 60-year-old woman in coma after cardiac arrest. The first EEG was recorded after 48 hours (GCS=5; E1-V1-M3); brain-stem reflexes were preserved. The EEG pattern showed monotonous alpha frequencies (10-11 Hz) with posterior predominance; acoustic and noxious stimuli evoked EEG reactivity. Early cortical SEPs (72 h) were normal. On the fifth day (GCS=8; E4-V1-M3), the EEG alpha pattern was replaced by a diffuse delta activity; rhythmic theta changes appeared spontaneously or in response to stimuli. The patient regained consciousness on the tenth day and EEG showed posterior theta activity (6-7 c/s) partially reactive to stimuli. At the 6-month follow-up, cognitive evaluation showed mild dementia. Recent studies identified two forms of AC. patients with complete AC have an outcome that is almost invariably poor. Conversely, incomplete AC (posteriorly accentuated alpha frequency, reactive and with SEPs mostly normal) reflects a less severe degree of anoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The case we report should be classified, according to the SEPs and EEG features, as incomplete AC. The fact that the patient has regained consciousness, even if with residual cognitive impairment, confirms the need to distinguish this variant from complete AC.
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10/55. Non-convulsive status epilepticus and consciousness disturbance after star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) ingestion in a dialysis patient.

    Star fruit ingestion may induce severe neurological complications in chronic renal failure patients. We present a case on maintenance dialysis therapy who developed a consciousness disturbance without convulsion after eating star fruit. The symptoms became aggravated after haemodialysis. The brain computed tomography scan showed no abnormal findings, but the electroencephalogram found active focal sharp waves in the left central regions and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging also showed hyperintense lesions in the left central regions that were compatible with non-convulsive status epilepticus. His condition improved dramatically after anticonvulsant therapy and regular haemodialysis. The patient was discharged 20 days later without neurological sequela.
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