Cases reported "Commotio Cordis"

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1/5. Acute abdomen caused by salmonella typhimurium infection in children.

    Salmonella spp. infections can be particularly challenging when they manifest as acute abdominal problems and lead to emergency surgery. Examples of such serious conditions are Salmonella-related intestinal perforation, gallbladder involvement, salpingitis, and peritonitis. mesenteric lymphadenitis associated with salmonella typhimurium mimics acute appendicitis and can make it difficult to establish a timely and definitive diagnosis in young patients who present with right lower abdominal pain. Paralytic ileus is a fairly common manifestation of Salmonella infection at all ages, but complete intestinal obstruction requiring surgical intervention is very rare. Because of the nature of the diagnostic process, a significant number of patients with Salmonella infection present with acute abdomen and undergo needless operations. This report describes the cases of 2 pediatric patients who underwent surgery to address persistent pain in the right lower abdominal quadrant and complete intestinal obstruction, respectively. The first patient had inflamed mesenteric lymph nodes that caused appendicitislike symptoms, and the second had dense adhesions between the mesentery and the terminal segments of the ileum that led to intestinal blockage. serology results showed that both patients' titers for BO ("B and O agglutinating [BO]") antibodies rose to 1:640 in the week after their admission to hospital, a pattern and level that is indicative of S typhimurium infection. J Pediatr Surg 36:1849-1852.
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2/5. Spontaneous rupture of adrenal pheochromocytoma with capsular invasion.

    A 67-year-old Japanese man developed a sudden onset of severe right-side upper abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. On hospitalization, physical examination revealed sweating, tachycardia, hypertension and the appearance of peripheral vasoconstriction. An urgent computed tomography scan with contrast demonstrated a large hematoma in the right retroperitoneal space. A phentolamine test and an 131iodine metaiodobenzylguanidine scan suggested pheochromocytoma. An elective right adrenalectomy was successfully performed after pretreatment for sufficient volume replacement with continuous administration of alpha- and beta-adrenergic blocking agents. Pathological diagnosis was an adrenal pheochromocytoma 9.0 x 6.5 cm in diameter with evidence of capsular invasion, which could be associated with a tear in the capsule.
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3/5. Thoracoabdominal radiculopathy.

    Thoracic nerve root dysfunction (TNRD) manifested as abdominal pain is an infrequently reported condition. We present data on six patients who had chronic intermittent thoracoabdominal pain originating in the back. Diabetes and osteoarthritis of the spine were the chief causes of these symptoms. The electromyogram in all patients showed changes consistent with an acute radiculopathy. All patients responded to anti-inflammatory therapy in combination with phenytoin, carbamazepine, amitriptyline, or local nerve block. TNRD is a condition that may be diagnosed earlier if clinical suspicion is increased, thus sparing patients excessive testing and surgery, and affording quicker relief.
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4/5. Repetitive bleeding from a pheochromocytoma presenting as an abdominal emergency. Case report.

    Recurrent abdominal pain was the only subjective manifestation in a case of pheochromocytoma with retroperitoneal bleeding. At emergency laparotomy the tumor, showing signs of fresh and earlier bleeding, was extirpated. Sinus-type tachycardia was treated with beta-blockade peroperatively, while the diagnosis was still obscure, but hypertension did not follow. Meta-oxedrine and dopamine infusion was continued for 48 hours to sustain the blood pressure. Recovery was uneventful.
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5/5. Unusual course of right atrial myxoma, masked by acute abdominal pain, and complicated by pulmonary embolus.

    In a 17-year-old youth, exploratory laparotomy for acute abdominal pain was complicated by circulatory arrest related to pulmonary embolism. echocardiography after resuscitation revealed a hitherto "silent" right atrial myxoma, fragmentation of which had blocked the right atrioventricular ostium, causing the pain. Operation was successful. As only a few similar cases have been reported, pulmonary embolism due to fragmentation of a right atrial myxoma may account for some unexplained sudden deaths beyond medical help.
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