Cases reported "Communication Disorders"

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1/35. Technological applications in the assessment of acquired neurogenic communication and swallowing disorders in adults.

    The role of technology is expanding rapidly in many aspects of the diagnostic process with patients who have neurogenic communication and swallowing disorders. In this article we discuss a broad selection of technological tools that enhance a wide range of diagnostic tasks, such as taking case histories, administering and scoring tests, performing acoustic, physiologic, cognitive, and linguistic analyses, making normative comparisons, profiling diagnostic results, and making diagnostic decisions. Clinicians are encouraged to scrutinize the relative value of all diagnostic tools to maintaining the quality of service. An appendix includes information for contacting vendors and manufacturers of the products discussed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = communication
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2/35. "Pure word deafness": implications for assessment and management in communication disorder--a report of two cases.

    In "pure word deafness" after acquired brain injury, the auditory comprehension of words is much more impaired than other aspects of communication or cognition. Two cases are presented, one early and one late presentation. The key to diagnosis of communication disorders is to remember to assess all six basic aspects of language function and to be vigilant for coexisting diagnoses that can complicate such assessment (especially psychiatric diagnoses). rehabilitation management of impaired communication should emphasize the teaching of specific coping mechanisms to the patient and to all others who are involved.
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ranking = 323.27042960465
keywords = communication disorder, communication
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3/35. Social, communicational, and behavioral deficits associated with ring X turner syndrome.

    We describe the cognitive and behavioral characteristics of five individuals with a ring x chromosome. All subjects had a small active (early replicating) ring x chromosome. The X inactive specific transcript (XIST) locus was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) to be present in all ring X chromosomes. Mental retardation was present in four individuals. All patients with or without mental retardation had a characteristic profile of aggression toward self and others, episodes of screaming, attentional problems, and impulsiveness. Autistic-like features were also present in all individuals and included limited communication, obsessive compulsive behavior, and social difficulties. In some cases the obsessive behavior was extreme and incapacitating. This characteristic behavioral profile may aid the diagnosis and future understanding of ring X.
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ranking = 1
keywords = communication
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4/35. Development and assessment of school-age and adolescent children with human immunodeficiency virus.

    This article presents a review of the literature regarding the communication problems of school-age children with hiv-infection and the impact of the psychosocial and emotional reactions of these children on their social relationships. An overview of the effects of hiv infection on the central nervous system is followed by descriptions of how hearing, oral motor function, speech, language, reading and written language may be affected.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = communication
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5/35. Psychosocial issues in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus.

    This article discusses the psychosocial issues associated with pediatric human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (hiv/AIDS). Using a psychosocial model instead of the usual medical or rehabilitation model will challenge speech-language pathologists to incorporate an understanding of the psychosocial stresses that affect a child's progression through hiv/AIDS and ensure that they receive adequate consideration in a total treatment model. A case study illustrates the relationship between communication disorders and hiv/AIDS.
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ranking = 64.574085920929
keywords = communication disorder, communication
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6/35. reinforcement schedule thinning following treatment with functional communication training.

    We evaluated four methods for increasing the practicality of functional communication training (FCT) by decreasing the frequency of reinforcement for alternative behavior. Three participants whose problem behaviors were maintained by positive reinforcement were treated successfully with FCT in which reinforcement for alternative behavior was initially delivered on fixed-ratio (FR) 1 schedules. One participant was then exposed to increasing delays to reinforcement under FR 1, a graduated fixed-interval (FI) schedule, and a graduated multiple-schedule arrangement in which signaled periods of reinforcement and extinction were alternated. Results showed that (a) increasing delays resulted in extinction of the alternative behavior, (b) the FI schedule produced undesirably high rates of the alternative behavior, and (c) the multiple schedule resulted in moderate and stable levels of the alternative behavior as the duration of the extinction component was increased. The other 2 participants were exposed to graduated mixed-schedule (unsignaled alternation between reinforcement and extinction components) and multiple-schedule (signaled alternation between reinforcement and extinction components) arrangements in which the durations of the reinforcement and extinction components were modified. Results obtained for these 2 participants indicated that the use of discriminative stimuli in the multiple schedule facilitated reinforcement schedule thinning. Upon completion of treatment, problem behavior remained low (or at zero), whereas alternative behavior was maintained as well as differentiated during a multiple-schedule arrangement consisting of a 4-min extinction period followed by a 1-min reinforcement period.
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ranking = 1
keywords = communication
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7/35. Response efficiency during functional communication training: effects of effort on response allocation.

    An analogue functional analysis revealed that the problem behavior of a young child with developmental delays was maintained by positive reinforcement. A concurrent-schedule procedure was then used to vary the amount of effort required to emit mands. Results suggested that response effort can be an important variable when developing effective functional communication training programs.
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ranking = 1
keywords = communication
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8/35. Mental illness and communication.

    Historical and more recent descriptions of mental illness emphasise the prominent nature of communicative difficulties in persons with these diagnoses (Sims 1995) and a large part of psychiatric intervention is verbally-mediated. Within this study, a theoretically-driven therapy programme addressed the communication needs of two persons with schizophrenia. Significant improvements were demonstrated using valid and reliable outcome measures.
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ranking = 1
keywords = communication
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9/35. Accessibility of spoken, written, and sign language in landau-kleffner syndrome: a linguistic and functional MRI study.

    landau-kleffner syndrome (LKS) is an acquired aphasia which begins in childhood and is thought to arise from an epileptic disorder within the auditory speech cortex. Although the epilepsy usually subsides at puberty, a severe communication impairment often persists. Here we report on a detailed study of a 26-year old, left-handed male, with onset of LKS at age 5 years, who is aphasic for English but who learned British sign language (BSL) at age 13. We have investigated his skills in different language modalities, recorded EEGs during wakefulness, sleep, and under conditions of auditory stimulation, measured brain stem auditory-evoked potentials (BAEP), and performed functional MRI (fMRI) during a range of linguistic tasks. Our investigation demonstrated severe restrictions in comprehension and production of spoken English as well as lip-reading, while reading was comparatively less impaired. BSL was by far the most efficient mode of communication. All EEG recordings were normal, while BAEP showed minor abnormalities. fMRI revealed: 1) powerful and extensive bilateral (R > L) activation of auditory cortices in response to heard speech, much stronger than when listening to music; 2) very little response to silent lip-reading; 3) strong activation in the temporo-parieto-occipital association cortex, exclusively in the right hemisphere (RH), when viewing BSL signs. Analysis of these findings provides novel insights into the disturbance of the auditory speech cortex which underlies LKS and its diagnostic evaluation by fMRI, and underpins a strategy of restoring communication abilities in LKS through a natural sign language of the deaf (with Video)
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ranking = 0.6
keywords = communication
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10/35. Grammar and lexicon in facilitated communication: a linguistic authorship analysis of a Finnish case.

    This case study adds a new dimension to the discourse on the authorship issue in facilitated communication. The linguistic structure produced by a young Finnish man with severe cerebral palsy was examined. Data are based on transcripts he produced from 1993 until 1996 after facilitated communication had been introduced to him. In the data analysis, as explicit criteria for his idiosyncrasies, we used patterns typical of children acquiring Finnish as their first language and those found in normal slips of the tongue, acquired aphasia, and specific language impairment. Based on the analysis (i.e. the idiosyncrasy and agrammaticality of word-forms and sentences), we strongly suggest that his output can hardly be a product of any other speaker of Finnish, including that of his facilitators.
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ranking = 1.2
keywords = communication
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