Cases reported "Communication Disorders"

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1/3. Assessing and managing medically fragile children: tracheostomy and ventilatory support.

    Over the past decade, there has been an increase in premature births. Children born prematurely often present with complex medical conditions; some require a tracheostomy. Although many children with tracheostomies require assistance to achieve effective communication, speech-language pathologists may have limited information with respect to the medical issues and communication needs of this population. The purpose of this article is twofold. First, a review of basic information on tracheostomy and ventilatory support in the pediatric population is provided. Second, information on the assessment of communication skills and intervention specific to voice for the child with a tracheostomy is detailed. Two case studies are presented. The case studies illustrate the diversity and medical complexity common to this population and provide practical information for the clinician working with a child with a tracheostomy.
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keywords = voice
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2/3. nasal obstruction and human communication.

    nasal obstruction may cause a variety of communication disorders, particularly in children. The effects of nasal obstruction on hearing, speech, language, and voice are examined. methods for assessing the effects of nasal obstruction are delineated, and recommendations for therapeutic interventions are described.
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keywords = voice
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3/3. Effects of synthetic speech output and orthographic feedback on spelling in a student with autism: a preliminary study.

    The effects of speech output and orthographic feedback on spelling performance were evaluated in this preliminary study. A nonspeaking student with autism was taught to spell words under three feedback conditions using a voice output communication aid. In the auditoryvisual condition, the participant received speech output and orthographic feedback. In the visual condition, the participant received only the orthographic feedback. In the auditory condition, the student received only speech output. An adapted alternating treatments design was used to evaluate the effects of the three feedback conditions. Although the participant reached criterion and maintained performance in each of the conditions, the provision of speech output alone and in combination with orthographic feedback resulted in more efficient spelling than the provision of orthographic feedback alone. Although replications with other subjects are necessary, findings suggest that speech output contributes to efficient spelling.
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keywords = voice
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