Cases reported "Communication Disorders"

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1/47. Discourse deficits following right hemisphere damage in deaf signers.

    Previous findings have demonstrated that hemispheric organization in deaf users of American sign language (ASL) parallels that of the hearing population, with the left hemisphere showing dominance for grammatical linguistic functions and the right hemisphere showing specialization for non-linguistic spatial functions. The present study addresses two further questions: first, do extra-grammatical discourse functions in deaf signers show the same right-hemisphere dominance observed for discourse functions in hearing subjects; and second, do discourse functions in ASL that employ spatial relations depend upon more general intact spatial cognitive abilities? We report findings from two right-hemisphere damaged deaf signers, both of whom show disruption of discourse functions in absence of any disruption of grammatical functions. The exact nature of the disruption differs for the two subjects, however. Subject AR shows difficulty in maintaining topical coherence, while SJ shows difficulty in employing spatial discourse devices. Further, the two subjects are equally impaired on non-linguistic spatial tasks, indicating that spared spatial discourse functions can occur even when more general spatial cognition is disrupted. We conclude that, as in the hearing population, discourse functions involve the right hemisphere; that distinct discourse functions can be dissociated from one another in ASL; and that brain organization for linguistic spatial devices is driven by its functional role in language processing, rather than by its surface, spatial characteristics. ( info)

2/47. Technological applications in the assessment of acquired neurogenic communication and swallowing disorders in adults.

    The role of technology is expanding rapidly in many aspects of the diagnostic process with patients who have neurogenic communication and swallowing disorders. In this article we discuss a broad selection of technological tools that enhance a wide range of diagnostic tasks, such as taking case histories, administering and scoring tests, performing acoustic, physiologic, cognitive, and linguistic analyses, making normative comparisons, profiling diagnostic results, and making diagnostic decisions. Clinicians are encouraged to scrutinize the relative value of all diagnostic tools to maintaining the quality of service. An appendix includes information for contacting vendors and manufacturers of the products discussed. ( info)

3/47. dementia. Part 3: Communication.

    People with dementia often have difficulty communicating. nurses should ensure these difficulties are not due to physical problems such as a lost hearing aid. Taking time to understand them can help nurses to communicate effectively with people with dementia. ( info)

4/47. "Pure word deafness": implications for assessment and management in communication disorder--a report of two cases.

    In "pure word deafness" after acquired brain injury, the auditory comprehension of words is much more impaired than other aspects of communication or cognition. Two cases are presented, one early and one late presentation. The key to diagnosis of communication disorders is to remember to assess all six basic aspects of language function and to be vigilant for coexisting diagnoses that can complicate such assessment (especially psychiatric diagnoses). rehabilitation management of impaired communication should emphasize the teaching of specific coping mechanisms to the patient and to all others who are involved. ( info)

5/47. Social, communicational, and behavioral deficits associated with ring X turner syndrome.

    We describe the cognitive and behavioral characteristics of five individuals with a ring x chromosome. All subjects had a small active (early replicating) ring x chromosome. The X inactive specific transcript (XIST) locus was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) to be present in all ring X chromosomes. Mental retardation was present in four individuals. All patients with or without mental retardation had a characteristic profile of aggression toward self and others, episodes of screaming, attentional problems, and impulsiveness. Autistic-like features were also present in all individuals and included limited communication, obsessive compulsive behavior, and social difficulties. In some cases the obsessive behavior was extreme and incapacitating. This characteristic behavioral profile may aid the diagnosis and future understanding of ring X. ( info)

6/47. Dysphagia after head trauma: the effect of cognitive-communicative impairments on functional outcomes.

    This article discusses the impact of cognitive-communicative and behavior problems on oral intake. Data on the swallowing outcomes of a group of patients in an acute rehabilitation facility are presented. These data illustrate the relationships among severity of dysphagia, admission and discharge Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores, admission and discharge cognitive FIM scores and length of stay. Two case studies that describe the effect of cognitive-communicative disorders on dysphagia are provided. ( info)

7/47. Development and assessment of school-age and adolescent children with human immunodeficiency virus.

    This article presents a review of the literature regarding the communication problems of school-age children with hiv-infection and the impact of the psychosocial and emotional reactions of these children on their social relationships. An overview of the effects of hiv infection on the central nervous system is followed by descriptions of how hearing, oral motor function, speech, language, reading and written language may be affected. ( info)

8/47. Communication intervention and therapeutic issues in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus.

    This article provides an overview of treatment strategies that target communicative disorders exhibited by children exposed to human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). The myriad of communicative disorders presented by these children is discussed in relationship to the complex needs of culturally diverse families. rehabilitation considerations, the impact of health status on treatment outcomes, and the need to work collaboratively with other health care professionals in meeting children's needs from a family-focused perspective are further discussed. ( info)

9/47. Psychosocial issues in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus.

    This article discusses the psychosocial issues associated with pediatric human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (hiv/AIDS). Using a psychosocial model instead of the usual medical or rehabilitation model will challenge speech-language pathologists to incorporate an understanding of the psychosocial stresses that affect a child's progression through hiv/AIDS and ensure that they receive adequate consideration in a total treatment model. A case study illustrates the relationship between communication disorders and hiv/AIDS. ( info)

10/47. reinforcement schedule thinning following treatment with functional communication training.

    We evaluated four methods for increasing the practicality of functional communication training (FCT) by decreasing the frequency of reinforcement for alternative behavior. Three participants whose problem behaviors were maintained by positive reinforcement were treated successfully with FCT in which reinforcement for alternative behavior was initially delivered on fixed-ratio (FR) 1 schedules. One participant was then exposed to increasing delays to reinforcement under FR 1, a graduated fixed-interval (FI) schedule, and a graduated multiple-schedule arrangement in which signaled periods of reinforcement and extinction were alternated. Results showed that (a) increasing delays resulted in extinction of the alternative behavior, (b) the FI schedule produced undesirably high rates of the alternative behavior, and (c) the multiple schedule resulted in moderate and stable levels of the alternative behavior as the duration of the extinction component was increased. The other 2 participants were exposed to graduated mixed-schedule (unsignaled alternation between reinforcement and extinction components) and multiple-schedule (signaled alternation between reinforcement and extinction components) arrangements in which the durations of the reinforcement and extinction components were modified. Results obtained for these 2 participants indicated that the use of discriminative stimuli in the multiple schedule facilitated reinforcement schedule thinning. Upon completion of treatment, problem behavior remained low (or at zero), whereas alternative behavior was maintained as well as differentiated during a multiple-schedule arrangement consisting of a 4-min extinction period followed by a 1-min reinforcement period. ( info)
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