Cases reported "Compartment Syndromes"

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1/83. Acute orbital compartment syndrome after lateral blow-out fracture effectively relieved by lateral cantholysis.

    PURPOSE: To report the observation of an acute traumatic orbital compartment syndrome in an 80-year-old man. methods: Lateral canthotomy and cantholysis. Computed x-ray tomography. RESULTS: Unilateral proptosis, blindness, a frozen globe and a dilated pupil developed within one hour after a blunt trauma to the left orbital region. Surgery two hours later resulted in normal orbital tension and near-complete recovery of functions. An orbital hematoma was found overlying a lateral blow-out fracture. CONCLUSION: Under favorable conditions, the orbital compartment syndrome can be effectively relieved by lateral canthotomy and cantholysis. The present and previous reports suggest that two hours of orbital ischemia is near the critical time limit for recovery of full visual function.
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2/83. Acute compartment syndrome complicating a distal tibial physeal fracture in a neonate.

    This case report of a neonate who developed an acute compartment syndrome secondary to a minimally displaced distal tibial physeal injury represents the youngest patient to be reported with such a condition. After undergoing emergency four-compartment decompression fasciotomies, the 4-week-old child had a return of normal neuromuscular function and anatomic remodeling of the fracture. It is difficult to diagnose compartment syndrome in a neonate. The patient can neither give a history, nor follow commands to cooperate with the exam. The physician must rely primarily on the physical examination; however, the quantitative measurement of intracompartmental pressure can corroborate the diagnosis of compartment syndrome. We have found using a monometer to measure intracompartmental pressure to be helpful in conjunction with a physical exam when evaluating a neonate suspected of having a compartment syndrome.
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3/83. Acute compartment syndrome of the forearm in association with ulnar shortening osteotomy: a case report.

    A 41-year-old man experienced severe pain in the forearm after undergoing ulnar shortening osteotomy to treat positive ulnar variance, a complication of a fracture of the distal end of the radius. The patient had compartment syndrome with compartment pressure of 55 mm Hg. A decompressive fasciotomy of the volar compartment provided total relief of pain and, subsequently, full recovery of all functions. We report the case and discuss the serious nature of compartment syndrome, its associated complications, and methods of diagnosis and management.
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keywords = fracture
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4/83. Acute traumatic compartment syndrome of the foot in children.

    Acute traumatic compartment syndrome of the foot is a sequelae of serious injury to the foot, which, if unrecognized, may result in significant motor and sensory deficits, pain, stiffness, and deformity. It is nearly always associated with fractures, dislocations, and crush injuries to the foot. Vascular injuries and coagulopathic states are also risk factors for the development of an acute foot compartment syndrome. In children, the presentation of an acute foot compartment syndrome may be masked by the pain and edema caused by associated fractures and dislocations. A high index of suspicion is warranted in children presenting with foot injuries that are associated with foot compartment syndrome. Recognition of the signs and symptoms of compartment syndrome in the emergency room are paramount; the diagnosis is best confirmed by multiple compartment pressure readings. The urgency of diagnosis of a compartment syndrome must be underscored, as the complications of a missed foot compartment syndrome includes contractures, claw toe deformity, sensory loss, stiffness, and chronic pain. Prompt orthopaedic consultation is mandatory; urgent compartment fasciotomies are associated with a good clinical outcome.
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keywords = fracture
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5/83. Congenital Volkmann-Lesser ischemic contracture of the upper limb.

    Neonatal vascular compromise to limbs has been associated traditionally with perinatal injury of the brachial plexus, fracture of the clavicle or humerus, or iatrogenic causes. Congenital Volkmann's ischemic contracture is an exceptional etiology of ischemic limb in the newborn. Fewer than 10 cases had been described in the literature. The authors report a newborn presenting at birth with partial bluish discoloration of the right forearm. The clinical picture and laboratory studies lead to the diagnosis of congenital Volkmann-Lesser ischemic contracture.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = fracture
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6/83. Compartment syndrome following isolated ankle fracture.

    We report two cases of compartment syndrome following isolated ankle fractures. Both required decompression of all the compartments following early clinical diagnosis and measurements of the intra-compartmental pressures.
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7/83. Acute noncontact compartment syndrome.

    Although acute compartment syndrome is considered a surgical emergency, controversies exist regarding diagnosis, surgical indications, and techniques of management. Acute compartment syndrome is associated with numerous causes, including fractures, crush injuries, burns, soft tissue injuries, and vascular trauma. Prolonged positioning of an extremity has not been previously described as a cause of compartment syndrome. The authors present a case of an acute compartment syndrome occurring because of prolonged extrication after a motor vehicle accident and without direct trauma to the involved extremity.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = fracture
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8/83. Ectopic calcification following tibial fracture: property analysis.

    We present a patient whose ectopic calcification following deep posterior compartment syndrome was studied by electron microscopy, chemical analyses, and x-ray diffraction. The patient complained of a toe flexion deformity following a tibial fracture which he sustained 18 years earlier. Damage to the peroneal artery was demonstrated by magnetic resonance angiography, suggesting that the patient had had deep posterior compartment syndrome in the past. A large radiopaque mass, identified in the flexor hallucis longus muscle by radiographs and computed tomography, was resected, resulting in a dramatic improvement of the toe deformity. The resected material was analyzed in detail. It included no osseous tissue, and was not birefringent under a polarizing microscope, being compatible with ectopic calcification rather than ossification. On electron microscopy the material was found to be an assembly of tiny rods. Chemical and x-ray diffraction analyses suggested a carbonate-containing apatite as the most probable substance.
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keywords = fracture
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9/83. Compartment syndrome after Bosworth fracture-dislocation of the ankle: a case report.

    There are only a few reported cases of compartment syndrome after an ankle fracture, and all have involved the deep posterior compartment. We present a case in which a patient had a Bosworth fracture-dislocation of the ankle, underwent open reduction internal fixation, and subsequently had an anterior compartment syndrome of the leg. Early recognition and prompt treatment are essential to avoid the late sequelae of compartment syndrome.
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ranking = 1.2
keywords = fracture
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10/83. Proximal ulna shaft fractures and associated compartment syndromes.

    In 1996, 6 (7%) of 84 ulna shaft fractures treated at our institution developed compartment syndrome. These 6 isolated, comminuted, proximal-third ulna fractures were secondary to low-velocity gunshot (5) or high-velocity blunt trauma (1). The 5 gunshot-induced fractures did not initially require immediate surgical intervention, but increasing compartment pressure prompted fasciotomy and open reduction and internal fixation. The blunt trauma fracture developed compartment syndrome while the patient awaited surgery; emergent fasciotomy and open reduction and internal fixation were performed. Three patients had vascular injury (interosseus system). The orthopedist must have a high index of suspicion for compartment syndrome in association with isolated, comminuted, proximal-third ulna fractures.
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ranking = 1.8
keywords = fracture
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