Cases reported "Compartment Syndromes"

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1/39. Acute compartment syndrome complicating a distal tibial physeal fracture in a neonate.

    This case report of a neonate who developed an acute compartment syndrome secondary to a minimally displaced distal tibial physeal injury represents the youngest patient to be reported with such a condition. After undergoing emergency four-compartment decompression fasciotomies, the 4-week-old child had a return of normal neuromuscular function and anatomic remodeling of the fracture. It is difficult to diagnose compartment syndrome in a neonate. The patient can neither give a history, nor follow commands to cooperate with the exam. The physician must rely primarily on the physical examination; however, the quantitative measurement of intracompartmental pressure can corroborate the diagnosis of compartment syndrome. We have found using a monometer to measure intracompartmental pressure to be helpful in conjunction with a physical exam when evaluating a neonate suspected of having a compartment syndrome.
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2/39. Ectopic calcification following tibial fracture: property analysis.

    We present a patient whose ectopic calcification following deep posterior compartment syndrome was studied by electron microscopy, chemical analyses, and x-ray diffraction. The patient complained of a toe flexion deformity following a tibial fracture which he sustained 18 years earlier. Damage to the peroneal artery was demonstrated by magnetic resonance angiography, suggesting that the patient had had deep posterior compartment syndrome in the past. A large radiopaque mass, identified in the flexor hallucis longus muscle by radiographs and computed tomography, was resected, resulting in a dramatic improvement of the toe deformity. The resected material was analyzed in detail. It included no osseous tissue, and was not birefringent under a polarizing microscope, being compatible with ectopic calcification rather than ossification. On electron microscopy the material was found to be an assembly of tiny rods. Chemical and x-ray diffraction analyses suggested a carbonate-containing apatite as the most probable substance.
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3/39. Compartment syndrome of the calf and foot following a displaced Salter-Harris type II fracture of the distal tibia: a review of the literature and a case report.

    A 14 year-old boy with an epiphyseal fracture of the distal right tibia and fibula developed compartment syndrome of the calf and foot. The diagnosis of compartment syndrome was delayed and a fasciotomy resulted in uncontrolled infection, which ultimately resulted in an above knee amputation. Constant vigilance is necessary in uncooperative or non-complaining patients to detect the signs and symptoms of compartment syndrome, even where the injury is not often associated with this complication. The difficulties in management, following a fasciotomy for delayed diagnosis of compartment syndrome, are discussed.
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4/39. The accessory flexor digitorum longus as a cause of Flexor Hallucis syndrome.

    The Flexor Hallucis syndrome has been associated with ballet and sports activities. It has been thought to represent over use with attendant tenosynovitis of the tendon in the fibro-osseous tunnel extending from the ankle to the midfoot. We report a patient with an accessory flexor digitorum longus who presented with classical clinical features of the syndrome. The patient's disabling symptoms persisted despite a year and a half of nonoperative treatment. They were finally relieved when the accessory muscle was excised. In addition to the previously described clinical features of the Flexor Hallucis syndrome, the physical exam included abnormal fullness between the achilles tendon and the tibia. When the ankle was held in dorsiflexion, there was limited dorsiflexion of the lateral toes, which were tethered by the "cork-in-a-bottle" effect of the distal muscle mass of the accessory flexor digitorum longus muscle at the flexor retinaculum and fibro-osseous canal of the flexor hallucis longus. The MRI examination confirmed the presence of an abnormal muscle mass extending distal to the ankle joint with the foot in neutral. The study also demonstrated fluid in the ankle joint and fibro-osseous canal of the flexor hallucis, and marrow edema within the body of the talus consistent with chronic inflammation. Follow-up MRI six months after excision of the muscle revealed some scar formation at the site of the previously excised muscle and complete resolution of the joint effusion, fluid in the tunnel of the flexor hallucis, and marrow edema.
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5/39. lower extremity compartment syndrome in an adolescent with spinal cord injury.

    OBJECTIVE: Describe the unusual complication of lower extremity compartment syndrome occurring in an adolescent with spinal cord injury (SCI). methods: Case presentation. RESULTS: A 17-year-old male with C5 asia A complete SCI developed a compartment syndrome of his lower leg on the ninth day postinjury. Presenting signs included an equinus deformity of the foot, blackened induration over the anterior tibia, circumferential erythematous markings over the calf, large urticarial lesions over the knee, and calf swelling. The presumed etiology of the compartment syndrome was excessive pressure from elastic wraps, which were placed over gradient elastic stockings. Pressures were 51 mmHg in the superficial posterior, 50 mmHg in the deep posterior, 33 mmHg in the anterior, and 34 mmHg in the peroneal compartments. The patient also developed rhabdomyolysis with myoglobinuria. In addition to supportive care, the patient underwent a dual incision fasciotomy for compartment release. CONCLUSIONS: The development of lower extremity compartment syndrome was probably a result of excessive pressure applied by elastic wraps. Elastic wraps should be used with caution in individuals with SCI.
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6/39. A case of severe hyperkalaemia and compartment syndrome due to rhabdomyolysis after drugs abuse.

    Severe hyperkalaemia is one of the complications of the non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis, which have been related to drug abuse, alcohol, etc. We report on a case of bilateral tibial compartment syndrome, severe hyperkalaemia and rhabdomyolysis after drug abuse. A 35-year-old male intravenous drug user was admitted to the emergency department after being found unconscious in his cell of the prison. physical examination at emergency department revealed no abnormalities except constricted pupils. Two hours after admission a wide QRS was observed in the electrocardiography and he developed asystole. cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed and transcutaneous pacing was applied at the beginning of cardiac arrest (150 mAmp and stimulation frequency 80 beats/min). At the moment of cardiac arrest, laboratory test showed potassium 9.2 mmol/l. Return of spontaneous circulation occurred in 21 min, and he was admitted to the intensive care Unit. Thirty-six hours after admission a compartment syndrome of both lower legs was suspected because of oedema with peripheral pulses. rhabdomyolysis has been reported after drug abuse. There is severe hyperkalaemia which should be identified and treated. A more rare complication of rhabdomyolysis is the compartment syndrome, a surgical emergency, which requires immediate fasciotomy to prevent serious complications.
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7/39. Thermodiffusion for the quantification of tissue perfusion in skeletal muscle--clinical evaluation in standardized traumatological procedures with tourniquet and potential application in the diagnosis of compartment syndrome.

    The quantification of tissue perfusion in different parenchymal organs like liver, kidney, and brain by means of thermodiffusion has recently been validated experimentally and was introduced into clinical practice. traumatology and plastic surgery deal as well with issues of microcirculation. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to validate thermodiffusion for use in skeletal muscle. Eighteen patients were studied during knee arthroscopic procedures that utilized a tourniquet. A thermodiffusion probe was inserted in the tibialis anterior muscle of the side under treatment. Measurement started before the initiation of limb ischemia (by tourniquet) and continued throughout the procedure until tissue perfusion returned to normal values postoperatively. Furthermore, an example of clinical applicability of this technique is given by monitoring muscle tissue perfusion in 3 patients with imminent compartment syndrome. Preoperative values of muscle tissue perfusion in the patients undergoing arthroscopic procedures were 17.74 /- 4.27 ml/min 100 g. After initiation of tourniquet perfusion quickly decreased to 3.59 /- 3.53 ml/min 100 g. Upon reperfusion tissue perfusion increased to values above normal for a few minutes and then returned to preischemic values of 20.86 /- 7.01 ml/min 100 g. There was no significant difference between pre- and postoperative values (P=0.154) but tissue perfusion during tourniquet was significantly reduced (P=0.0001). In 3 patients presenting with the clinical signs of imminent compartment syndrome, thermodiffusion measurement was applied and showed microcirculatory impairment of different degrees. Fasciotomy was followed by a prompt increase of muscle microcirculation to levels slightly above normal. In summary, valid and stable measurements of tissue perfusion in skeletal muscle by means of thermodiffusion are possible under clinical circumstances. Thermodiffusion allows for on-line monitoring of muscle microcirculation, e.g., in compartment syndrome. The clinical potential of thermodiffusion measurements in trauma surgery needs further prospective evaluation.
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8/39. exercise induced compartment syndrome in a professional footballer.

    Recurrent pain in the lower leg caused by exercise is a common problem in athletes. The main causes are exercise induced compartment syndrome, periostitis of the tibia, stress fracture, venous diseases, obliterative arterial diseases, and shin splints. exercise induced compartment syndrome is the least common. A recurrent tightening or tense sensation and aching in anatomically defined compartments is pathognomonic. The symptoms are caused by abnormally high pressure in compartments of the leg during and after exercise. In this report, a case of exercise induced compartment syndrome in a professional footballer is described.
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9/39. Does patient controlled analgesia delay the diagnosis of compartment syndrome following intramedullary nailing of the tibia?

    We report on four cases in which the diagnosis of compartment syndrome was delayed by the administration of patient controlled analgesia (PCA) following intramedullary nailing of tibial shaft fractures. We believe that this poses a diagnostic problem and can lead to lasting sequelae as decompression is delayed. We recommend extra vigilance with the use of PCA in patients with intramedullary nailing following tibial shaft fractures.
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10/39. Compartment pressures after closed tibial shaft fracture. Their relation to functional outcome.

    We measured pressures in the anterior and deep posterior compartments continuously for up to 72 hours in 20 patients with closed fractures of the tibial shaft treated primarily in plaster casts. All were examined independently after periods of three to 14 months. Pressures above 40 mmHg occurred in seven (35%) and above 30 mmHg in 14 (70%). No patient had the symptoms of compartment syndrome during monitoring. Abnormalities at review did not correlate with the maximum consecutive time periods during which the compartment pressures were raised. Thus, in the absence of symptoms the monitored pressures did not relate to outcome. Routine monitoring in this type of patient is therefore of doubtful benefit.
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