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1/10. Complex regional pain syndrome in childhood: report of three cases.

    We describe three patients with the limb pain of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in childhood with autonomic nervous system function involvement. Their autonomic nerve abnormality was non-invasively examined by means of laser doppler flowmetry (LDF) and a sympathetic skin response (SSR) test. In one it was resolved with physiotherapy, but the others needed epidural anesthesia for pain control. Though CRPS used to be recognized as a refractory disorder in adults, childhood cases have been found in recent years, generally having a better prognosis than adult ones. However, even in the children, the prognosis or responses to the same therapy vary, and there are progressive and refractory cases. CRPS should be considered as a differential diagnosis of unexplained persistent limb pain even in childhood for early and appropriate management.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nerve
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2/10. Complex regional pain syndrome (type I) after electrical injury: a case report of treatment with continuous epidural block.

    A 26-year-old man presented with severe complex regional pain syndrome type I of the affected limb after a work-related electrical injury. He suffered causalgia-like pain with no electrodiagnostic evidence of nerve injury. Early steroid and analgesic regimens did not adequately relieve these symptoms. His symptoms were temporarily relieved several times with stellate ganglion blocks. The patient underwent a cervical epidural block with a local anesthetic as well as a narcotic agonist over a 4-day period, which resulted in prompt, remarkable pain relief. Vocational rehabilitation was instituted as the pain subsided.
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ranking = 19.028135623145
keywords = block, nerve
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3/10. Complex Regional Pain syndrome in the ambulatory surgical care setting.

    This article provides an historical synopsis from the 17th century to the present regarding the disease process known as Complex Regional Pain syndrome (CRPS) Type I. An overview of the disease symptoms, plausible theories, and a review of the pain cycle, relief measures, and a case scenario are reported. The focus of pain blockade was chosen because this was the intervention used in this particular case. The author presents the holistic standpoint of the importance of incorporating complementary alternative medical practices (CAMP) to enhance a positive outcome for this client. OBJECTIVES: -Based on the content of this article, the reader should be able to (1) distinguish the main characteristic between CRPS Type I (reflex sympathetic dystrophy) and CRPS Type II (causalgia); (2) identify symptoms related to CRPS Type I; and (3) identify the stages of CRPS and state potential interventions used in the treatment of CRPS Type I.
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ranking = 3.0046892705241
keywords = block
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4/10. Complex regional pain syndrome after thromboendarterectomy: which type is it?

    The authors describe a complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and discuss its type according to the presence or absence of nerve injury. A patient underwent thromboendarterectomy of the right popliteal artery. Subsequently, right lower limb reflex sympathetic dystrophy developed, which was confirmed by scintigraphy and responded well to calcitonin treatment. Typing according to the new classification of CRPS type I or II with possible nerve injury is discussed, and a short review of the literature is included.
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ranking = 2
keywords = nerve
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5/10. Treatment of tremors in complex regional pain syndrome.

    A 14-year-old girl presented with Complex Regional Pain syndrome, Type I (CRPS-1) of the left ankle after a remote history of sprain. Allodynia, pain, temperature and color changes, and swelling were successfully treated with physical therapy, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), gabapentin, amitriptyline, and tramadol. Five weeks later, she presented with a continuous, involuntary, intermittent coarse tremor of the left foot causing increased pain. The electromyogram showed rhythmic discharges of 3 Hz frequency lasting 20-80 milliseconds in the left tibialis, peroneus and gastrocnemius, suggestive of either basal ganglia or spinal origin. tremor and pain were controlled with epidural bupivacaine, but the tremor reappeared after discontinuing epidural blockade. carbidopa/levodopa 25/100 (Sinemet) was started and the tremor disappeared after two days. With continued physical therapy, pain and swelling resolved within two months and carbidopa/levodopa was discontinued after five weeks with no recurrence of the tremor. Our success in the treatment of CRPS-associated tremor in this young girl with carbidopa/levodopa suggests that this patient may have had underlying movement disorder which was unmasked by the peripheral injury.
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ranking = 4.0046892705241
keywords = block, nerve
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6/10. Complex regional pain syndrome involving the lower extremity: a report of 2 cases of sphenopalatine block as a treatment option.

    We report 2 cases of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) involving the lower extremity; in both, a sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) block was performed as part of a pain management program. In the first case, a woman in her late twenties presented with CRPS in the left lower extremity that was inadequately controlled with typical oral medications. Sympathetic block of the extremity did not provide significant pain relief. However, a noninvasive sphenopalatine block with 4% tetracaine resulted in a 50% reduction in pain level. The patient was shown how to self-administer the sphenopalatine block and was provided with exercises and therapy to help improve her functional status. The second case involved a woman in her mid forties with CRPS in the right lower extremity that was partially controlled with oral medications. The patient experienced a 50% reduction in pain level when SPG block with 4% tetracaine was given. Further study is needed to determine the effects of SPG blocks on symptoms related to chronic regional pain syndrome.
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ranking = 30.046892705241
keywords = block
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7/10. Computed tomography guided lumbar sympathetic block for complex regional pain syndrome in a child: a case report and review.

    The aim of this paper is to describe the first reported use of computed tomography (CT) guided lumbar sympathetic block as treatment of a case of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in a child. The potential aetiology of CRPS is discussed in relation to the mechanism of action of local anaesthetics used in the block. Based on the successful treatment of this child and the documented success of its use in adults, we conclude that despite the minimal dose of radiation given, CT guided lumbar sympathetic block is an important treatment option in CRPS in children.
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ranking = 21.032824893669
keywords = block
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8/10. Basal blood flow in complex regional pain syndrome does not necessarily indicate vasoconstrictor nerve activity.

    OBJECTIVES: To quantitatively investigate simultaneous skin blood flow and sweating in a patient with complex regional pain syndrome. METHOD: Using one probe, skin blood flow and sweating were measured on the affected and non-affected sides at baseline and after activation of sympathetic system in a 47-year-old woman with complex regional pain syndrome type I of the left hand. RESULTS: Basal sweating, sympathetic sweat response, basal blood flow, sympathetic flow response, and attrition rate of blood flow (the ratio of sympathetic flow response to basal blood flow) of the affected side were greater than those on the non-affected side. CONCLUSIONS: Although sympathetic nerve activity (sympathetic flow response) appeared greater on one side, basal blood flow was also greater on that side. These contradictory results suggest that some factor or factors increase basal blood flow despite a higher sympathetic nerve tone on the side. Comparing basal blood flow on one side to the contralateral side does not necessarily indicate lesser vasoconstrictor nerve activity on that side. Advantages of simultaneous measurement of skin blood flow and sweating with a single probe may make the method useful.
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ranking = 7
keywords = nerve
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9/10. patients with Ehlers Danlos syndrome and CRPS: a possible association?

    Rare patients are left with chronic pain, vasodysregulation, and other symptoms that define complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), after limb traumas. The predisposing factors are unknown. Genetic factors undoubtedly contribute, but have not yet been identified. We report four CRPS patients also diagnosed with the classical or hypermobility forms of Ehlers Danlos syndrome (EDS), inherited disorders of connective tissue. These patients had been diagnosed using standard diagnostic criteria for CRPS and for EDS. All had sustained joint injury; in three this had been surgically treated. The association of these two diagnoses leads us to hypothesize that EDS might contribute to the development of CRPS in one or more of the following ways: via stretch injury to nerves traversing hypermobile joints, increased fragility of nerve connective tissue, or nerve trauma from more frequent surgery. We review the clinical presentation of the different Ehlers Danlos syndromes and provide clinical criteria that can be used to screen CRPS patients for EDS for clinical or research purposes.
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ranking = 3
keywords = nerve
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10/10. Repeated lumbar sympathetic blockade with lidocaine and clonidine attenuates pain in complex regional pain syndrome type 1 patients--a report of two cases.

    Repeated lumbar sympathetic blockade (LSB) with local anesthetics is generally used in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) of the lower extremities if the initial block has been successful. However, the symptoms of CRPS may inevitably recur in spite of repeated LSB. clonidine, an alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist, has both anesthetic and analgesic sparing effects, and when added to local anesthetics may enhance peripheral and central neural block due to its local or central analgesic effects. It is reasonable that clonidine has been used in chronic pain conditions such as neuropathic and sympathetically maintained pain. Here we report two cases of CRPS type 1 who got excellent analgesia and alleviation of clinical symptoms after receiving an LSB with lidocaine and clonidine.
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ranking = 21.032824893669
keywords = block
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