Cases reported "Confusion"

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11/151. Non-convulsive status epilepticus: a treatable cause of confusion in pituitary apoplexy.

    confusion occurring in pituitary apoplexy is well described. We describe a case of pituitary apoplexy associated with confusion, occurring as a result of non-convulsive status epilepticus. electroencephalography should be performed in pituitary apoplexy associated with confusion if this treatable and potentially serious complication is not to be missed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = non-convulsive status epilepticus, status epilepticus, non-convulsive status, non-convulsive, epilepticus, status
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12/151. Novel prion protein gene mutation in an octogenarian with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    BACKGROUND: The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies constitute a fascinating and biologically unique group of invariably fatal neurodegenerative disorders that affect both animals and humans. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome, and fatal familial insomnia represent the more common human phenotypes. Excluding the small number of iatrogenically transmitted cases, approximately 85% to 90% of patients develop CJD without identifiable explanation, with an increasing number of different mutations in the prion protein gene (PRNP) recognized as probably causative in the remainder. OBJECTIVE: To report on an 82-year-old woman with pathologically confirmed CJD found unexpectedly to harbor a novel mutation in PRNP. methods: Routine clinical investigations were undertaken to elucidate the cause of the rapidly progressive dementia and neurological decline manifested by the patient, including magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, electroencephalography, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis for the 14-3-3 beta protein. Standard postmortem neuropathological examination of the brain was performed, including immunocytochemistry of representative sections to detect the prion protein. Posthumous genetic analysis of the open reading frame of PRNP was performed on frozen brain tissue using polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. RESULTS: Concomitant with the exclusion of alternative diagnoses, the presence of characteristic periodic sharp-wave complexes on the electroencephalogram in combination with a positive result for 14-3-3 beta protein in the cerebrospinal fluid led to a confident clinical diagnosis of CJD, confirmed at autopsy. There was no family history of dementia or similar neurological illness, but patrilineal medical information was incomplete. Unexpectedly, full sequencing of the PRNP open reading frame revealed a single novel mutation consisting of an adenine-to-guanine substitution at nucleotide 611, causing alanine to replace threonine at codon 188. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to expanding the range of PRNP mutations associated with human prion diseases, we believe this case is important for the following reasons. First, from an epidemiological perspective, the avoidance of occasional incorrect classification of patients manifesting neurodegenerative disorders that may have a genetic basis requires systematic genotyping, particularly when there are uncertainties regarding the family history. Second, the incidence of spongiform encephalopathy in elderly patients beyond the typical age range may be underestimated and does not preclude a genetic basis. Finally, as a corollary, this case highlights problematic issues in human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, as illustrated by disease penetrance and age of onset in genotype-phenotype correlations.
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ranking = 0.00050921906933882
keywords = mal, complex
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13/151. Acute encephalopathy associated with metronidazole therapy.

    A forty-eight year-old male with amoebic liver abscess became encephalopathic 3 days following oral metronidazole. Withdrawal of the drug led to prompt resolution of all encephalopathic symptoms.
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ranking = 0.00025311023226251
keywords = mal
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14/151. Inappropriate antidiuresis associated with pituitary adenoma--mechanisms not involving inappropriate secretion of vasopressin.

    We report an unusual case of inappropriate antidiuresis with undetectable vasopressin in an elderly man presenting with confusion due to severe hyponatremia. Further investigations led to the diagnosis of non-functional pituitary macroadenoma. The patient had normal thyroid and adrenal function. The abnormal water balance resolved promptly after transsphenoidal removal of the tumor, confirmed by a repeat water loading test. We conclude that inappropriate antidiuresis in the absence of excess vasopressin secretion may implicate mass effect from an underlying pituitary tumor.
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ranking = 0.00050622046452501
keywords = mal
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15/151. An unusual case of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage caused by wakeboarding.

    Wakeboarding is a relatively new and exciting sporting activity which is similar to water-skiing. While there have been several reports of water-skiing-related injuries, there has been nothing reported in the literature so far concerning injuries in wakeboarding. We present the case of a 14-year-old male who sustained an unusual intracranial subdural hemorrhage while wakeboarding and postulate on the mechanisms which could have resulted in the injury.
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ranking = 0.00025311023226251
keywords = mal
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16/151. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus causing acute confusion.

    PRESENTATION: an elderly patient presented with acute confusion and was found to have nonconvulsive status epilepticus. She responded to treatment with anti-epileptic drugs. OUTCOME: this case illustrates an important, under-recognized and reversible cause of acute prolonged confusion.
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ranking = 0.64479511172158
keywords = status epilepticus, epilepticus, status
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17/151. Acute confusion secondary to pneumocephalus in an elderly patient.

    PRESENTATION: an 83-year-old man was admitted to hospital with acute confusion 3 days after a direct flight from australia. OUTCOME: computed tomography (CT) brain scan and magnetic resonance imaging head scan revealed the cause to be pneumocephalus, apparently the result of barotrauma caused by Valsalva manoeuvres when he attempted to unblock his nose during the flight. After 5 days of nursing in the vertical position the patient's Abbreviated Mental Score returned to normal. A CT brain scan 6 weeks later showed complete resolution of the pneumocephalus.
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ranking = 0.00025311023226251
keywords = mal
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18/151. giant cell arteritis. Episodes of syncope add complexity to an unusual presentation.

    GCA presents in various forms, creating a diagnostic conundrum for the treating physician. Evaluation requires extensive medical examination, testing, and imaging to rule out other conditions. Compared with the process of diagnosing GCA, treating it is relatively straightforward. Most patients show significant improvement with corticosteroid therapy. Our patient presented with syncope, which also has numerous causes. Detailed testing confirmed a positional trigger for her syncope in the absence of hemodynamic disturbances. She responded promptly to corticosteroid therapy. We speculate that flow-limiting stenosis in the vertebrobasilar system may have caused her symptoms.
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ranking = 1.1994419255252E-5
keywords = complex
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19/151. The many faces of confusion. Timing and collateral history often hold the key to diagnosis.

    Recognition of a patient's state of confusion is only the beginning of a clinical odyssey that can implicate a huge spectrum of diagnostic possibilities. Among these are delirium, depression, dementia, and sensory deprivation. However, with appropriate physical examination and laboratory studies, collateral history, and clarification of time course for the symptom complex, the cause of confusion need not remain confusing.
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ranking = 2.998604813813E-6
keywords = complex
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20/151. Leptomeningeal glioblastoma presenting with multiple cranial neuropathies and confusion.

    glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the commonest primary malignant neoplasm of the CNS. Usually, patients present with seizures and headache but in the elderly, confusion and generalised cognitive decline are more frequently the initial features. Multiple cranial nerve lesions as a manifestation of leptomeningeal meningitis is a rare presentation of GBM. The diagnosis is not often suggestive on either brain computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and is usually confirmed by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology or histology. We describe the case of an 80-year-old man, who presented with multiple cranial nerve palsies and confusion secondary to leptomeningeal gliomatosis, in whom GBM was detected along the intra-ventricular lining of the left lateral ventricle at ventriculoscopy, in the absence of a distinct parenchymal lesion.
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ranking = 0.00050622046452501
keywords = mal
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