Cases reported "Confusion"

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1/54. Acute mental status changes and hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis with long-term topiramate therapy.

    Mental status changes and metabolic acidosis may occur with topiramate therapy. These adverse events were reported during dosage titration and with high dosages of the drug. A 20-year-old man receiving topiramate, valproic acid, and phenytoin experienced acute-onset mental status changes with hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. He had been receiving a modest dose of topiramate for 9 months. He was weaned off topiramate over 5 days, and his mental status returned to baseline within 48 hours of discontinuing the agent. This case illustrates the need for close evaluation of patients who experience acute-onset mental status changes during topiramate therapy.
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2/54. Psychotic symptoms and confusion associated with intravenous ganciclovir in a heart transplant recipient.

    A 65-year-old man underwent orthotopic cardiac transplantation and was prophylactically treated for cytomegalovirus infection with intravenous ganciclovir. He received standard dosages and had normal renal function. After 6 days of therapy he experienced psychotic symptoms with hallucinations, confusion, and disorientation. His altered mental status resolved after the drug had been discontinued for 5 days. ganciclovir was suspected as a cause of the symptoms. Alternative etiologies of were explored and excluded.
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3/54. Relation of impairment to everyday competence in visual disorientation syndrome: evidence from a single case study.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the relation of neurology and neuropsychology to everyday competence. DESIGN: The association of these three domains was investigated using a single case multiple baseline design with two phases. Phase A comprised 6 weeks that coincided with an inpatient admission. Phase B comprised 3 months spent at home. A battery of visual spatial tests was completed every fortnight during the A phase and at the end of the B phase. Two new tests of relevant neurologic function with control data were developed and used weekly during the A phase and at the end of the B phase. The first test recorded the speed, accuracy, and efficiency of her walking, and the second test recorded her depth perception. SETTING: Tertiary care center. PARTICIPANT: A 35-year-old woman who suffered a venous sinus thrombosis with visual disorientation syndrome. RESULTS: During Phase A, she achieved significant functional gains in mobility, dressing, bathing, and domestic tasks, in the context of unchanging psychometric test scores and static relevant neurologic function. During Phase B, she achieved few functional gains, despite improvements in neurologic status, demonstrated by depth perception. CONCLUSIONS: Everyday function can progress without improvement in neurologic and cognitive status.
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4/54. Prolonged post-ictal confusion as a manifestation of continuous complex partial status epilepticus: a depth EEG study.

    We report a peculiar depth-EEG recording of prolonged post-ictal confusion which proved to be continuous complex partial status epilepticus. A 33 year old male with intractable medial temporal lobe epilepsy exhibited this ictal EEG recording. After repetitive habitual complex partial seizures, and an ensuing short lucid interval with intact memory and full communicability, the patient became more and more unresponsive and, finally, even cataleptic. Concurrent with this change in responsiveness, an EEG revealed a gradual and steady increase of ictal EEG activity. Immediately after intravenous diazepam infusion, this ictal EEG activity was suppressed and the patient began to move. This case confirms that a paradoxical excitation can occur after clustered complex partial seizures, instead of the well-known neuronal exhaustion.
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5/54. Non-convulsive status epilepticus: a treatable cause of confusion in pituitary apoplexy.

    confusion occurring in pituitary apoplexy is well described. We describe a case of pituitary apoplexy associated with confusion, occurring as a result of non-convulsive status epilepticus. electroencephalography should be performed in pituitary apoplexy associated with confusion if this treatable and potentially serious complication is not to be missed.
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6/54. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus causing acute confusion.

    PRESENTATION: an elderly patient presented with acute confusion and was found to have nonconvulsive status epilepticus. She responded to treatment with anti-epileptic drugs. OUTCOME: this case illustrates an important, under-recognized and reversible cause of acute prolonged confusion.
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7/54. De novo absence status of late onset following withdrawal of lorazepam: a case report.

    The aim of this report is to describe the clinical and electroencephalographic findings seen in an elderly woman without previous history of seizures who developed a nonconvulsive generalized status epilepticus following acute withdrawal of lorazepam. scalp video-EEG monitoring was obtained using the standard 10/20 system of electrode placement. Cognitive and speech functions were specifically tested during the evaluation. Continuous irregular rhythmic generalized 2.0-2.5 Hz sharp-and-slow wave complexes intermixed with spikes and polyspikes more prominent over the frontocentral areas were seen on the EEG. This epileptic activity was continuous and unmodified by sensory stimulation and eyes opening and closing. Intravenous injection of diazepam caused a rapid normalization of the EEG with disappearance of the clinical manifestations. De novo absence status is a specific epileptic condition that should be suspected in all elderly subjects on chronic treatment with psychotropic drugs presenting in a confusional state. An urgent EEG is essential to confirm the diagnosis.
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8/54. thrombocytopenia and altered mental status in an hiv-positive woman.

    We present a case of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) in a human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-positive woman with altered mental status. Altered mental status with thrombocytopenia may be due to many causes, including consumptive coagulopathy, systemic lupus erythematosis, infection, and as side effects of commonly used anti-seizure medications. Of these, platelet transfusion is ineffective or specifically contraindicated in the consumptive coagulopathies, including TTP. TTP should be considered in all patients with altered mental status or neurologic dysfunction, thrombocytopenia, and hemolytic anemia to prevent morbidity and mortality.
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9/54. Antithyroid antibodies in the CSF: their role in the pathogenesis of Hashimoto's encephalopathy.

    Antithyroid antibodies and circulating immune complexes (CIC) were found in the CSF of six patients with Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) but not in the CSF of 21 controls. The synthesis of autoantibodies and CIC was intrathecal and their titers were independent of the patients' clinical status or therapy. Their presence in the CSF of patients with acute or subacute encephalopathy may be useful in diagnosing HE.
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10/54. Neurotoxicity induced by Cefepime in a very old hemodialysis patient.

    Neurotoxicity is an unusual complication of cephalosporin therapy. Only few cases of neurotoxicity induced by Cefepime have been described and probably the frequency of Cefepime-induced status epilepticus is underestimated. We report a case of an 82 year-old male, ESRD patient on chronic hemodialysis program affected by pneumonia, who received a treatment with intravenous Cefepime (1 g/day) and developed a seizure 4 days after the starting antibiotic therapy. Cefepime-induced neurotoxicity was suspected and its administration was immediately discontinued. In order to increase Cefepime clearance a hemodialysis session was urgently started and an improvement of his conscious level was observed. On the following day, after a second hemodialysis session his clinical condition and the status of neurotoxicity were completely recovered. The patient was discharged from the hospital in stable clinical condition one week later. At variance with the cases previously reported, the daily dose of Cefepime administrated to our patient was 50% lower and respected drug prescription dosage. Thus, we speculate on the hypothesis that advanced age of our patient and metabolic encephalopathy induced by chronic uremia made him more sensitive to the neurotoxicity induced by the drug. In conclusion, our case suggests that, in very old patients on long-term hemodialysis, it should be considered, to avoid neurotoxicity, to monitor the clinical neurological status, to use Cefepime at lower dosage than that allowed in patients with severe renal impairment (1 g/day) and, when possible, to evaluate Cefepime plasma levels. However, in these patients, other agents of the same class should be considered such as cefotaxime and ceftriaxone which are characterized by both an hepatic and renal excretion. In alternative to cephalosporins, antibiotics with the same action spectrum in the absence of neurological toxicity (i.e. Meropenem) should be recommended.
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