Cases reported "Constipation"

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1/25. Obstructed defecation after undiverted ileoanal pouch reconstruction for ulcerative colitis: pharmacologic approach. Report of a case.

    PURPOSE: Obstructed defecation after ileal pouch construction has been reported only after closure of the diverting loop ileostomy, and biofeedback was an effective treatment modality. METHOD: This is a case report of a patient with immediate obstructed defecation after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis without a covering loop ileostomy and its successful pharmacologic management. RESULTS: A 38-year-old female underwent restorative proctectomy and stapled ileal J-pouch-anal anastomosis without a covering loop ileostomy. On the seventh postoperative day, her pouch catheter (in lieu of a covering loop ileostomy) was removed and she failed to evacuate. After ruling out any technical complications, diltiazem was commenced with successful spontaneous pouch emptying. Obstructed defecation reoccurred after cessation of diltiazem one week later, but the symptoms resolved once the diltiazem was recommenced. CONCLUSIONS: Obstructed defecation has been reported in patients after pelvic pouch reconstruction. However, in all those patients a diverting loop ileostomy had been raised and their obstructive symptoms were only apparent after closure of the ileostomy and when the pouch had healed. The concern regarding our patient was the complete outlet obstruction so soon after surgery, with undue strain on the anastomosis and the potential risk of disruption. Our only two options were either to create a diverting loop ileostomy or to try a fast-acting pharmacologic agent (diltiazem) to treat the presumed levator spasm. The latter option spared the patient a further operation.
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2/25. Currarino triad--diagnostic dilemma and a combined surgical approach.

    PURPOSE: The authors present 2 families with 3 cases of Currarino triad, diagnostic difficulties, their familial occurrence, and genetic mapping, with emphasis on a combined pediatric surgical and pediatric neurosurgical approach in managing these children. RESULTS: The main presentation was intractable constipation. In the first family there was a 4-generation pedigree with recurrence of Currarino triad. The mother and the child have the condition. family 2 screening showed a 3-generation pedigree with presence of Currarino triad in 3 members. patients 2 and 3 are cousins whose fathers are affected by spina bifida occulta and Currarino triad, respectively. In patient 1, the diagnosis was made after inadvertent rupture of an anterior meningocele during posterior myectomy. In patient 2, the presacral mass was found on examination under anesthesia, and the planned anorectal myectomy for intractable constipation was abandoned. Patient 3 was a cousin of patient 2, and the diagnosis was considered when she presented with intractable constipation at the age of 7 months. Magnetic resonance scan was useful in showing the presence of presacral mass, spinal abnormalities, and tethered cord. A combined pediatric and neurosurgical approach optimized the extirpation of the presacral mass with minimal complications. Surgical treatment was individualized according to the estimation of the operative risk factors. All patients have a normal bladder function. Patient 1 has required laxatives and enemas for intermittent constipation. She has associated learning difficulties but is otherwise well. Patient 2 and 3, aged 10 and 2 years, respectively, are awaiting closure of colostomy. They are thriving and well. CONCLUSIONS: The authors recommend a combined pediatric and neurosurgical assessment and management for all cases of Currarino triad. family screening is obligatory. The authors suggest the use of a magnetic resonance scan or computerized axial tomography myelogram to define the presence of anosacral and spinal cord anomalies in patients with intractable constipation.
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3/25. A case of a primary ovarian leiomyosarcoma.

    A primary ovarian leiomyosarcoma is extremely rare. Moreover, there is no established treatment modality other than surgery, and the prognosis is extremely poor. We report a case of a primary ovarian leiomyosarcoma. The patient was a gravida 4, para 2, 73-year-old female. She first presented with chief complaints of constipation and a pelvic mass. A physical examination revealed a solid tumor in the pelvic cavity. Which was about the size of an infant's head and had an irregular shape. The patient was suspected of having a subserosal myoma of the uterus or an ovarian tumor, and she was subjected to a laparotomy. A solid tumor about the size of an infant's head was found in the left uterine adnexa, and an intraoperative rapid pathological diagnosis of an ovarian leiomyosarcoma was made. A total abdominal hysterectomy, a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, a pelvic lymphadenectomy, and an omentectomy were then performed. The final pathological diagnosis confirmed a left primary ovarian leiomyosarcoma. After a series of discussions with the patient's family about her therapeutic plan, we decided to let the patient be followed-up without adjuvant therapy. Forty-two months after the surgery, the patient accumulated massive amounts of pleural effusion and ascites, with extensive organ metastasis. She received terminal care and soon died.
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4/25. Surgical treatment of a sigmoid volvulus associated with megacolon: report of a case.

    Sigmoid volvulus occurring concomitantly with megacolon is an uncommon cause of bowel obstruction, and various approaches to treatment have been proposed. We report herein a case of sigmoid volvulus with megacolon that was successfully treated by elective surgery following endoscopic reduction during the same hospital stay. A 70-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with abdominal pain, distension, and severe constipation. physical examination, plain abdominal X-ray, and barium enema confirmed a sigmoid volvulus and further examinations revealed concomitant megacolon. An elective sigmoid colectomy was performed following successful endoscopic decompression. The postoperative course was uneventful and there was no residual colonic dysmotility. Histologically, no aganglionic tissue was observed in the resected specimen.
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keywords = operative
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5/25. Four cases of desmosis coli: severe chronic constipation, massive dilatation of the colon, and hypoperistalsis due to of changes in the colonic connective-tissue net.

    We present four patients 5, 10, 12, and 17 years of age, each with a long history of severe constipation and hypoperistalsis of the gut. Three had partial or total resection of the colon, all had enterostomies, and only one maintains normal bowel function after reanastomosis. We report the clinical courses, radiologic findings, and operative procedures for all four cases. Preoperative full-thickness biopsies and the resected colon specimens revealed a complete or incomplete lack of the mesh network of collagen. The connective-tissue layer between the circular and longitudinal muscles was missing. Contrary to expectations, the enteric nervous system (ENS) was normal or near-normal in the affected areas. Hypo- and dysganglionosis was found additionally in some proximal segments of colon and/or small bowel. This combination of clinical symptoms and pathological findings is called desmosis of the colon with reference to a working hypothesis in a preliminary report by Meier-Ruge in 1998. Aplastic or hypoplastic desmosis may be the reason for the disturbed gut motility. Histologic examination should thus not only exclude changes of the ENS.
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keywords = operative
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6/25. Giant fecaloma with idiopathic sigmoid megacolon: report of a case and review of the literature.

    PURPOSE: fecal impaction is a common condition, and " fecaloma" is an extreme variety of impaction. This is a report of a giant, solitary, and stubborn fecaloma not responding to nonoperative management. A surgical intervention for uncomplicated fecal impaction is rarely needed and reported in the literature. METHOD: A 39-year-old male patient with constipation presented with a firm, mobile, abdominal mass of six-months duration. Investigations revealed an isolated, giant fecaloma in a redundant sigmoid megacolon. After all the conservative measures were unsuccessful in evacuating the stubborn impaction, he was treated by sigmoid colectomy and primary anastomosis. CONCLUSION: A timely surgical intervention in recalcitrant fecal impactions may prevent possible stercoral ulcer perforation with a high mortality.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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7/25. Completely laparoscopic total colectomy for chronic constipation: report of a case.

    Laparoscopic surgery has had a remarkable impact on the practice of colorectal surgery. However, most operations are performed using a technique of laparoscopic assistance, whereby extracorporeal bowel division and anastomosis are made following laparoscopic mobilization of the bowel. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe a case of chronic constipation managed by total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis, performed completely laparoscopically. The diagnosis of slow transit constipation was made by a transit time study. After dissection of the entire colon, the colon to be resected was delivered through the open rectal stump and brought out transanally. The anvil of an intraluminal circular stapler was passed through the rectum into the peritoneal cavity and the end of the open distal rectum was closed with a linear cutting stapler. The anvil of the circular stapler was inserted into the end of the open terminal ileum and fixed with an Endo-Loop, following which an intracorporeal double-stapling anastomosis was performed. By 3 months following surgery, the patient was passing 3-4 stools a day. Thus, we highly recommend this technique as it eliminates the need for a small incision to deliver the resected colon, thereby minimizing the operative time and risk of wound infection.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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8/25. Total colonic aganglionosis: a case study.

    Total colonic aganglionosis (TCA) is a rare, hybrid form of Hirschsprung's disease. It is a functional rather than mechanical obstruction, characterized by the absence of intrinsic ganglion cells in the myenteric and submucosal plexuses of the bowel wall. Ganglion cells regulate normal colonic peristaltic activity. Paucity of ganglion cells results in an aganglionic segment of bowel that is functionally abnormal and does not propagate the normal peristaltic wave that moves to it from the proximal ganglionic bowel. The lesion originates in the rectum and extends proximally over a variable distance of the bowel. The further the lesion extends, the more difficult the management becomes. Clinical and radiologic findings can be useful in diagnosis, but they are not pathognomonic. The definitive diagnosis is made following suction biopsy of the rectum, colon, and ileum. Ultimate treatment for TCA is surgical, although no single surgical procedure has been proven superior. Total parenteral nutrition during the postoperative period is essential to ensure appropriate fluid and electrolyte status. Improvements in supportive care and earlier recognition and diagnosis of TCA in infants have led to a significantly increased rate of survival since the lesion was first recognized. The embryology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, management prognosis, and outcome of TCA are discussed. A case study is presented.
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keywords = operative
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9/25. Acute transanal evisceration of the small bowel: report of a case and review of the literature.

    We report a patient who presented with rectal rupture and transanal evisceration, a rare entity with only 52 cases previously described in the world literature. Our case is the first to implicate sheer stress on the anterior rectum caused by postoperative adhesions as the major etiologic contributing feature. Moreover, this case is the third reported with chronic constipation without rectal prolapse as an additional preexisting contributory condition. A summary of the medical literature including etiology, treatment, and outcomes is presented.
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keywords = operative
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10/25. colostomy for treatment of functional constipation in children: a preliminary report.

    OBJECTIVES: Surgery is indicated in very few children with intractable functional constipation. A number of operations have been described with unpredictable outcome and significant morbidity. The authors present a series of 10 children who underwent a Hartmann procedure with end colostomy formation. METHOD: Preoperative management, in addition to maximum conservative measures, included psychologic referral, rectal biopsy, transit studies, and contrast enemas. A standard Hartmann procedure was performed with on-table rectal washout, formation of a proximal sigmoid colostomy, limited anterior resection of hypertrophic proximal rectosigmoid, and oversewing of the rectal stump. RESULTS: The series includes 10 pediatric patients (4 female, 6 male), in whom constipation was first reported at a median age of 3 years (range, 2 months-7 years) and surgical referral was made at 8 years (range, 1-14 years). Surgery was performed at a median age of 9.5 years (range, 2-15 years), and the median postoperative stay was 5 days (range, 4-9 days). Complications occurred in four patients (transient mild rectal discharge in 2, stomal prolapse in 1, and an unrelated small bowel obstruction in 1 patient with an additional Mitrofanoff stoma). Median postoperative follow-up was 31 months (range, 9-56 months), and the children and parents were all completely satisfied with the stoma. CONCLUSION: colostomy formation is a potential surgical option for severe functional constipation with low associated morbidity and high patient satisfaction.
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ranking = 3
keywords = operative
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