Cases reported "Constipation"

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1/6. Currarino syndrome: proposal of a diagnostic and therapeutic protocol.

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The Currarino syndrome (CS) is a peculiar form of caudal regression syndrome (CRS) characterized by the association of hemisacrum, anorectal malformation (arm), and presacral mass. The authors analyzed retrospectively their series, and they propose a multidisciplinary diagnostic and therapuetic protocol that until now has not been introduced. methods: A series of 6 patients with CS is presented. Five of them were treated initially in other centers. None of them had an early diagnosis. All presented associated anomalies; in 50%, Hirschsprung's disease (HD) and other dysganglionoses were present. One patient died of a presacral ectopic nephroblastoma. RESULTS: Depending on the expressivity, 3 types of CS can be identified, complete, mild, and minimal. Dysganglionoses and HD can be considered part of CS. A multidisciplinary diagnostic and therapeutic protocol is presented. Main points are sacrum x-Ray, molecular genetic diagnosis, radiologic evaluation of every member of CS families, magnetic resonance (MR) evaluation of patient spine and pelvis, suction rectal biopsies, and search for associated anomalies. CONCLUSIONS: This protocol could give a valid contribution to the treatment of CS, allowing an early diagnosis and proposing a rational timing of multidisciplinary surgical procedures. early diagnosis and treatment are essential to avoid morbidity and mortality from an undiagnosed presacral mass.
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2/6. Currarino syndrome: report of two cases and review of the literature.

    In the present paper the authors examine two cases of Currarino syndrome and review the existing literature on the disease. Both cases presented with chronic constipation. The first concerns a two year old male born with anorectal stenosis and diagnosed with Currarino syndrome when scimitar sacrum and anterior meningocele were finally detected. The second concerns a 25 year old female who suffered from chronic constipation but was not diagnosed until thorough examination revealed ectopic anus with hirschsprung disease, scimitar sacrum and anterior meningocele. Because these patients were not diagnosed with Currarino syndrome when first seen, the authors reviewed its prevalence, embryogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment. The authors' research supports the significance of prompt diagnosis in effective treatment and reduction of morbidity.
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3/6. An unusual cause of constipation presenting to the emergency department.

    A case report of a 16-year-old girl who presented to the emergency department with constipation and recurrent urinary tract infections is examined. She gave a history of persistent coccygeal pain stemming from a fall on a trampoline 1 year ago. On examination, she was found to have an abdominal mass arising from the pelvis and paraesthesia of S1-S5 dermatomes in the right leg. An abdominal radiograph showed bony erosion of the sacrum. Magnetic resonance scanning revealed a mass arising from the sacrum and subsequent biopsy diagnosed the tumour as Ewing's sarcoma.
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4/6. Triad of anorectal stenosis, sacral anomaly and presacral mass: a remediable cause of severe constipation.

    Two neonates with intestinal obstruction and two children (aged 1 and 4 years) with severe constipation since birth are reported in whom stenosis of the distal rectum was found. In association with the rectal anomaly, three of them had a presacral tumour (teratoma in two, hamartoma in one) and all had a deformed sacrum. An embryological hypothesis to explain this association has been postulated by Currarino, after whom this triad has been named. Two patients were related (father and daughter). The role of hereditary factors in the occurrence of the syndrome has been reported before. Operative treatment of the rectal stenosis was necessary in all patients. Preoperative diverting colostomy was performed in three cases, followed by a posterior sagittal approach to excise the rectal stenosis and the presacral mass. In one case, persistent cerebrospinal fluid leakage required re-exploration for closure of a tear in a congenitally abnormal dural sac. The fourth patient had undergone a low anterior resection in the past via the abdominal route and needed rectal dilatation afterwards for some time. The final result in all patients appears satisfactory, although follow-up is short. Most cases of this triad have been reported in children but a number of patients have been diagnosed only as adults. Recognition of this triad should imply a careful search for neural crest malformations. Operative treatment to correct all soft tissue anomalies leads to good results.
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5/6. Anterior sacral meningocele. A presentation of three cases.

    Anterior sacral meningoceles are congenital lesions that consist of a spinal fluid-filled sac in the pelvis communicating by a small neck with the spinal subarachnoid space through a defect in the sacrum. The three patients with this disorder presented here had characteristic symptoms snd physical findings: chronic constipation, a pelvic mass, and almost unmistakable roentgenographic changes, but diagnosis was delayed from 11 months to 21 years in all three. After prolonged and complicated treatment, the primary lesions have been surgically eradicated and function is generally satisfactory.
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keywords = sacrum
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6/6. MRI and radiographic findings in Currarino's triad.

    Currarino's triad is a rare complex of a congenital sacral bony abnormality, anorectal malformation and a presacral mass. Intractable constipation since birth is the leading symptom of this triad, which follows an autosomal dominant mode of heredity. We report conventional radiographic and MR findings in one family consisting of a mother and her two daughters. In all three cases, radiography revealed an abnormality of the os sacrum, the so-called scimitar sacrum. MR examination, undertaken next in our institution, was applied with T1-, T2- and proton density weighted sequences in all three orientations before and after i. v. application of gadolinium diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA). In two patients we were able to diagnose the complete form of the triad and in one patient an incomplete form. In any case of a radiographically diagnosed scimitar sacrum in combination with constipation, Currarino's triad should be considered. MRI, as the method of choice, should be the next step to detect a presacral mass and any anomalies of the spinal canal. The importance of early recognition lies in the high morbidity and mortality rates resulting from this disorder.
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