Cases reported "Contusions"

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1/14. Myocardial contusion culminating in a ruptured pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle--a case report.

    Blunt chest trauma continues to be one of the most common injuries at all ages. Trauma in general is the leading cause of death in the young to middle-aged segment of our population. Blunt chest injury is said to occur in more than one third of all motor vehicle accidents. Myocardial contusion is the most frequent cardiac injury resulting from blunt chest trauma. autopsy studies indicate that cardiac trauma was directly associated with death in approximately 10% of cases suffering blunt chest injury. aneurysm formation as a sequela of blunt cardiac trauma is a rare entity and pseudoaneurysm formation is considerably more rare. A case of myocardial contusion resulting in myocardial necrosis, rupture of the ventricle, and pseudoaneurysm formation with subsequent rupture and sudden death is presented.
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2/14. case reports. 1. An autopsy case of fatal arrhythmia induced by injuries of the atrioventricular conduction system: a case report.

    A 65-year-old woman died three days after being involved in a traffic accident, following an episode of ventricular fibrillation. She was diagnosed as having suffered cardiac contusion, liver contusion, mediastinal hematoma and rib fracture on admission. Her electrocardiogram showed complete right bundle branch block, complete atrioventricular block, and right axis deviation. Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase-MB were found to be elevated on biochemical blood analysis. These findings recovered and her condition appeared to improve daily. At autopsy, epicardial and intramyocardial haemorrhage were macroscopically seen in the posterior wall of the bilateral ventricles. On microscopic examination, there was evidence of fresh haemorrhage and coagulative necrosis with inflammatory reaction in the ordinary myocardium and adipose tissue around the atrioventricular node, which had spread to the proximal portion of the His' bundle. It is considered that these findings caused ventricular fibrillation to occur, and that the cause of death in this case was myocardial contusion due to blunt thoracic injury. This case would indicate that myocardium nearby atrioventricular junction is vulnerable to external force. Moreover, it would seem that fatal arrhythmia occasionally occurs during the follow-up stage, despite the lack of any significant clinical findings.
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3/14. Sudden death from contusion of the right atrium after blunt chest trauma: case report and review of the literature.

    Occult cardiac injury following blunt trauma is more common than generally suspected. Myocardial lesions range from myocardial contusion to cardiac rupture. Myocardial contusion is not uncommon, it is usually a benign disorder which often remains undiagnosed. We report the case of a previously healthy 29-year-old man who was involved in a fight and suffered from blunt heart injury leading to contusion of the right atrium. The patient died soon after the injury and before admission to the Hospital. The diagnosis was made at autopsy. The present case is of special interest because of the unusual eliciting event and the rarity of the contusion site (right atrium). It is reported in order to raise the index of suspicion in physicians treating patients involved in a fight and aid in prompt diagnosis of myocardial contusion.
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4/14. Electrocardiographic ST-segment elevation in the trauma patient: acute myocardial infarction vs myocardial contusion.

    The diagnosis of myocardial contusion in the setting of blunt trauma engenders much discussion and controversy-partly because of the lack of a gold standard for its identification other than histologic findings at autopsy. Furthermore, blunt cardiac trauma represents a spectrum of disorders ranging from transient electrocardiographic change to sudden death from myocardial rupture; hence, no single terminology exists to define such a wide range of scenarios. Here, we present 2 cases of electrocardiographic ST-segment elevation after high-speed motor vehicle crashes resulting in numerous injuries, including blunt chest trauma. Both patients demonstrated electrocardiographic ST-segment elevation, resulting from myocardial contusion and acute myocardial infarction.
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5/14. True-true, unrelated: a case report.

    OBJECTIVES: Sudden cardiac deaths in previously healthy children are frequently due to undiagnosed cardiovascular diseases, either congenital or acquired. In an uncommon clinical entity known as commotio cordis, sudden death from cardiac arrest can occur in young athletes after a blunt blow to the chest, in the absence of preexisting cardiovascular disease. We present a case in which the clinician's high index of suspicion leads to the diagnosis of acute myocarditis in a patient whose sudden cardiac deterioration was initially attributed to the result of recent blunt chest trauma. methods: A case report and review of literature via medline (1996-2004) search using the key words "myocarditis," "commotio cordis," and "myocardial contusion." RESULTS: A 12-year-old boy was admitted with elevated cardiac enzymes and respiratory distress after being hit in the chest with a dodgeball. Shortly after admission, the patient developed refractory ventricular arrhythmia, which was thought to be the result of blunt chest trauma. Further evaluation with endomyocardial biopsy, however, demonstrated acute myocarditis as the true etiology, for which the patient received immunosuppressive treatment. Unfortunately, the patient eventually required cardiac transplantation because of progressive irreversible cardiac dysfunction due to myocarditis. CONCLUSIONS: Although acute myocarditis, commotio cordis, and myocardial contusion can all present with malignant ventricular arrhythmia, other clinical features and approaches to management of each disease are very different. This case illustrates the importance of having a broad differential diagnosis in mind when presented with a previously healthy child in sudden cardiogenic shock.
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6/14. Traumatic heart disease.

    Five cases of traumatic heart disease (THD) who sustained blunt chest injury in road accidents are reported. In addition to fracture of the ribs (observed in all the cases), there was fracture of the sternum and rupture of the liver and spleen in one case each. Two patients had flail chest. One presented with recurrent ventricular tachycardia lasting for 72 hours followed by changes suggestive of subendocardial infarction. The second case also had changes like subendocardial infarction and it was preceded by junctional tachycardia with aberrant conduction during the first 48 hours. Ventricular premature beats (VPB) were the only abnormality noted in one case and the remaining two had ST-T wave changes suggestive of inferolateral ischaemia without any arrhythmias. The patient with VPB developed pericardial rub without effusion. There was one death and postmortem revealed ruptured liver and spleen in addition to laceration of the right ventricle and haemopericardium. The electrocardiographic changes persisted for two to eight weeks. All four cases were symptom-free at 12 weeks and treadmill exercise test done after 12 to 18 weeks was normal.
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7/14. Sudden unexpected death from cardiac concussion (commotio cordis) with unusual legal complications.

    Sudden and unexpected death may result from cardiac concussion following blunt force trauma to the thorax. Undiagnosed pathologic disease must be carefully evaluated as a possible contributory element. Legal complications may arise from any autopsy. It is recommended that a photograph be taken upon completion of the autopsy. This photograph and adequate records can be used to refute any charges against the pathologist or assistants for the poor condition of a body after its release.
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8/14. Delayed fatal impact cardiopathy.

    The lesions of impact cardiopathy ("cardiac contusion") which fail to heal satisfactorily, leading to delayed heart failure and death, are infrequently recognized, in part because of a general lack of appreciation of the lingering significance of lesser degrees of trauma. The case of a 31-year-old male dying 4 weeks after a vehicular collision provides strong confirmation of the expectable intermediate aspects of this spectrum of post traumatic lesions.
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9/14. reflex mechanisms of death in missile injuries of the neck.

    Three cases of missile injury to the neck are reported, two homicides and one suicide. In two fatalities, the autopsy revealed contusion of the spinal cord due to direct missile injury of the cervical spine but without laceration of the spinal dura. It was concluded that the temporary cavity following penetration of the bullet caused contusion of the spinal cord with subsequent reflex cardiac arrest. In the suicide case, the entrance wound was in the mouth, the bullet track traversed the pharynx and the cervical spine with complete transection of the cord, and the bullet lodged in the right scalenus muscle. The lack of vital signs such as blood aspiration, which was expected because of the injury of the pharynx, also indicates immediate occurrence of death owing to a reflex mechanism in this case. The underlying reflex mechanisms are discussed in the light of clinical experience in the treatment of paraplegics as well as the findings in experimental contusion and transection of the cervical cord.
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10/14. Esophageal foreign bodies as child abuse. Potential fatal mechanisms.

    foreign bodies being forced into the esophagus as a form of fatal child abuse is rare. A 4.5-month-old female infant presented to clinicians with respiratory distress. Several coins were recovered from the esophagus. One month later, she was found dead in her crib. At autopsy, there were three coins in the esophagus. In addition, there were cutaneous contusions of various ages, acute and partially healed fractures of the extremities, old aspirated foreign material in the lungs, and pulmonary fat emboli. Although the fat emboli may have contributed to the death, several potentially fatal mechanisms from the esophageal foreign bodies deserve consideration. These include vagal stimulation from esophageal distention, aspiration of swallowed fluids after esophageal obstruction, compression of the trachea or the heart by the coins, and cardiac compression or airway occlusion by the introducing finger.
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