Cases reported "Corneal Diseases"

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1/302. Very high-frequency ultrasound corneal analysis identifies anatomic correlates of optical complications of lamellar refractive surgery: anatomic diagnosis in lamellar surgery.

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the utility of very high-frequency (VHF) ultrasound scanning in determining the anatomic changes and correlates of optical complications in lamellar refractive surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Case series. PARTICIPANTS: Cases analyzed included marked asymmetric astigmatism postautomated lamellar keratoplasty (ALK), image ghosting despite normal videokeratography post-ALK, uncomplicated myopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), and hyperopic LASIK with regression. methods: A prototype VHF ultrasound scanner (50 MHz) was used to obtain sequences of parallel B-scans of the cornea. Digital signal processing techniques were used to measure epithelial, stromal, and flap thickness values in a grid encompassing the central 4 to 5 mm of the cornea, enabling pachymetric mapping of each layer with 2-micron precision. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The appearance of the corneas in VHF ultrasound images and thickness values of individual corneal layers determined from VHF ultrasound data. RESULTS: VHF ultrasound resolved the epithelial, stromal cap, or flap and residual stromal layers 1 year after lamellar surgery. Asymmetric stromal tissue removal was differentiated from stromal cap irregularity. epithelium acted to compensate for asymmetry of the stromal surface about the visual axis and for localized surface irregularities. Irregularities in the epithelial-stromal interface accounted for image ghosting present despite apparently normal videokeratography. Epithelial thickening was shown after uncomplicated myopic LASIK. Hyperopic LASIK demonstrated relative epithelial thickening localized to the region of ablation accounting for refractive regression. CONCLUSIONS: VHF ultrasound shows promise as a sensitive method of determining the anatomic correlates of optical complications in lamellar refractive surgery.
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ranking = 1
keywords = visual
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2/302. Iridocorneal melanoma associated with type 1 neurofibromatosis: a clinicopathologic study.

    OBJECTIVE: A clinicopathologic study of an iridocorneal melanoma associated with type 1 (peripheral) neurofibromatosis is presented. DESIGN: Case report with clinicopathologic correlation. PARTICIPANT: A 32-year-old white woman with type 1 neurofibromatosis presented with long-standing blindness of her right eye due to diffuse intrastromal brown corneal discoloration. INTERVENTION: The patient underwent penetrating keratoplasty and the corneal button was inspected. RESULTS: Histopathologic evaluation of the corneal button after penetrating keratoplasty revealed an intrastromal mixed-type malignant melanoma, which stained positively with HMB-45 and S-100 protein and spared the corneal epithelium and limbus. The corneal graft remained transparent, with best-corrected visual acuity of 20/30. Twenty-two months after surgery, the tumor involved the anterior chamber angle and the iris. Three years later, it caused refractory glaucoma necessitating enucleation. The iris tumor did not extend beyond the iris-lens diaphragm and showed the same cytologic features as the corneal stromal tumor. CONCLUSION: To our best knowledge, this is the first report of iridocorneal melanoma associated with peripheral neurofibromatosis. The location of the tumor in the deep corneal stroma, without initial macroscopic involvement of the angle or iris, may suggest that the corneal portion of the tumor may have developed "in situ" rather than as an extension of iris melanoma. The common origin of melanoma cells and schwann cells from the neural crest and the proliferation of the schwann cells in neurofibromatosis provides additional support for this hypothesis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = visual
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3/302. Posterior lamellar keratoplasty for a case of pseudophakic bullous keratopathy.

    PURPOSE: To describe a new surgical technique for posterior corneal transplantation. methods: An elderly patient had painful, pseudophakic bullous keratopathy with low visual potential. Through a 9.0-mm scleral tunnel incision, a midstromal pocket was dissected across the cornea, and a posterior lamellar disk 7.0-mm in diameter, which consisted of posterior stroma, descemet membrane, and endothelium, was excised. A similarly shaped donor posterior disk was implanted in the recipient opening without suture fixation, and the scleral incision was sutured. RESULTS: Throughout the postoperative period, the posterior corneal transplant remained clear and in position. Three months after surgery, the "suture-in" astigmatic error was 3.5 diopters. Pachymetry measured 0.44 mm. CONCLUSION: Posterior lamellar keratoplasty may be a new surgical approach with which to manage corneal endothelial disorders.
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ranking = 1
keywords = visual
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4/302. Delayed onset keratectasia following laser in situ keratomileusis.

    We present a case of unilateral iatrogenic keratectasia developing 10 months after bilateral laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) involving enhancement surgery using a broad-beam excimer laser (Summit Apex) to treat 6.6 diopters (D) of myopia. The ectasia progressed rapidly over the subsequent 12 months. The surgeon did not measure preoperative pachymetry, but preoperative topography and corneal measurements did not reveal underlying keratoconus or forme fruste keratoconus. corneal transplantation was required for final visual rehabilitation. light microscopy of the button revealed no underlying inflammation, which suggests biomechanical corneal weakening as the cause of the ectasia. Scanning electron microscopy showed the dramatic thinning seen clinically. latrogenic keratectasia appears to be a possible complication of LASIK.
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ranking = 1
keywords = visual
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5/302. Staphylococcal infection under a LASIK flap.

    PURPOSE: To report a staphylococcal infection under a laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) flap and to discuss the management of this rare and potentially devastating complication. methods: A patient was referred to our practice having had bilateral LASIK. She was found to have abscesses under the left corneal flap. staphylococcus aureus was identified as the infecting organism by corneal scrape and treated with appropriate antibiotics. The cornea improved, and then the abscess recurred. The abscess was again scraped and intensive treatment reinstituted. RESULTS: After successful treatment, the patient recovered excellent visual acuity with only a minimal astigmatic error. CONCLUSION: The possible reasons for the apparent improvement and then recurrence of the abscess are discussed. The management of this case including the need for corneal scrape and antibiotic prophylaxis is discussed in relation to previously reported cases.
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ranking = 1
keywords = visual
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6/302. fluorescein test for the detection of striae in the corneal flap after laser in situ keratomileusis.

    PURPOSE: To report a technique for detecting striae in the corneal flap after laser in situ keratomileusis. methods: fluorescein dye was instilled in the eye, and the patient was asked to blink. The tear film was examined at the slit lamp with the cobalt filter 1 or 2 seconds after blinking. RESULTS: The uneven pattern of pooling in the tear film was a sensitive indicator of the presence of striae in the flap. CONCLUSION: This technique may be useful in detecting minimal striae in the corneal flap in patients with unexplained suboptimal visual acuity after laser in situ keratomileusis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = visual
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7/302. Surgical management of coexisting pseudophakic bullous keratopathy and glaucoma.

    This technique is a 1-step surgical management approach for patients with pseudophakic bullous keratopathy, glaucoma, and an unsatisfactory intraocular lens (IOL). The outcome of 4 consecutive patients who had penetrating keratoplasty, IOL removal, vitrectomy, transscleral sutured IOL implantation, and trabeculectomy by the same surgeon were reviewed. All patients had had intracapsular cataract extraction with anterior chamber IOL implantation and were on antiglaucoma therapy. Main outcome measures were Snellen visual acuity and intraocular pressure. A 1-stage quintuple procedure can achieve relatively rapid visual rehabilitation in these high-risk eyes. The role of filtration surgery is controversial, but it was partially successful in controlling postoperative intraocular pressure.
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ranking = 2
keywords = visual
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8/302. Deep lamellar keratoplasty using viscoelastic dissection.

    We describe a technique for performing deep lamellar keratoplasty using viscoelastic dissection. Deep lamellar dissections of the cornea using viscoelastic substances (sodium hyaluronate) were performed on 4 eyes of 4 patients. One patient with keratoconus and another with corneal scarring underwent lamellar keratoplasty using the technique as the sole procedure for visual rehabilitation. Two patients (2 eyes) with opaque corneas underwent deep lamellar dissection with removal of stromal tissue to allow visualization of the anterior segment structures prior to penetrating keratoplasty, thereby facilitating separation of iridocorneal adhesions as the descemet membrane was incised. Deep lamellar dissection was performed without complications related to the procedure in all 4 eyes. The 2 lamellar grafts cleared completely, and both eyes achieved excellent visual acuity with spectacle correction. In the other 2 eyes, deep lamellar dissection provided clear visualization of anterior segment structures during incision of the descemet membrane. Deep lamellar dissection using viscoelastic substances is a useful technique during lamellar keratoplasty.
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ranking = 4
keywords = visual
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9/302. Management of severe flap wrinkling or dislodgment after laser in situ keratomileusis.

    PURPOSE: To review the management and results of cases with severe flap wrinkling or dislodgment after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). SETTING: University eye Center, Department of ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Prince of wales Hospital, The Chinese University of hong kong. methods: Four patients with severe flap wrinkling or dislodgment after LASIK are described. Surgical repositioning of the flap was performed in all cases. Flap status, refractive changes, and final uncorrected and best corrected visual acuities were used to evaluate the outcome of flap repositioning. RESULTS: Flap repositioning required suturing in 2 patients, 1 of whom developed severe epithelial ingrowth with melting of the corneal flap and stromal bed and eventually required flap removal. The stromal inflammation resolved, and the corneal surface re-epithelialized after flap excision. In 2 other patients, wedge-shaped tissue excision (1.0 x 1.5 mm) from the superior portion of the corneal flap was necessary to allow better flap realignment. In 1 of these patients, the corneal flap was eventually converted to a free cap to correct residual wrinkling. At a mean follow-up of 15 months, the postoperative uncorrected visual acuity ranged from 20/20 to 20/60, and the best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) was 20/30 or better in all patients. In 1 patient, BSCVA decreased by 1 line. CONCLUSIONS: Flap dislodgment and wrinkling are serious postoperative complications of LASIK. Early recognition of these complications and prompt surgical management are crucial to achieve a successful surgical and visual outcome.
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ranking = 4
keywords = visual
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10/302. Central bump-like opacity as a complication of high hyperopic photorefractive keratectomy.

    PURPOSE: A new complication is reported in association with high hyperopic excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy. methods: One thousand consecutive eyes were treated with a Meditec MEL-60 excimer laser (Meditec Inc, Heroldsberg, germany) for hyperopic refractive error between 1 diopters and 7 diopters. RESULTS: Three eyes with high hyperopic corrections between 5 and 6 diopters had a central, round bump-like subepithelial scar develop 1 month after hyperopic photorefractive keratectomy, which reduced the uncorrected and spectacle-corrected visual acuity. CONCLUSION: Central bump-like opacity is a new, visually significant complication of unknown origin associated with high hyperopic photorefractive keratectomy. Possible causes of this complication include drying and edema of the cornea as a result of prolonged exposure, interruption of the peripheral superficial nerve plexus affecting the central anterior stroma, and abnormal epithelial or tear film function resulting from excessive central steeping.
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ranking = 2
keywords = visual
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