Cases reported "Corneal Opacity"

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1/55. A first British case of fish-eye disease presenting at age 75 years: a double heterozygote for defined and new mutations affecting LCAT structure and expression.

    Fish-eye disease is a familial syndrome with corneal opacification, major high density lipoprotein (HDL) deficiency in plasma, significant cholesterol esterification in plasma on non-HDL lipoproteins, generally without premature coronary disease. This first British male case from unrelated British parents had infarcts when aged 49 and 73 years but was asymptomatic at age 81 years, with plasma cholesterol 4.3-7.1 mmol/litre, triglycerides 1.8-2.2 mmol/litre, HDL cholesterol < 0.1 mmol/litre, apolipoprotein a-i < 0.16 g/litre, lipoprotein(a) 0.61 g/litre. cholesterol esterification was impaired using HDL-3 and A-I proteoliposomes but not using VLDL/IDL/LDL. The findings are those of LCAT deficiency with the classic fish-eye disease defect. Most of the 22 reported cases were homozygous or heterozygous for a Thr-Ile mutation at codon 123 of the lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) gene. This patient was a double heterozygote for this mutation and a second new incompletely defined mutation affecting LCAT expression as defined by reduced mass and activity in plasma.
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2/55. Classical LCAT deficiency resulting from a novel homozygous dinucleotide deletion in exon 4 of the human lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase gene causing a frameshift and stop codon at residue 144.

    Lecithin: cholesterolacyltransferase (LCAT) transacylates the fatty acid at the sn-2 position of lecithin to the 3beta-OH group of cholesterol forming lysolecithin and the majority of cholesteryl ester found in plasma. LCAT participates in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway in man where it esterifies tissue-derived cholesterol following efflux from peripheral cells into HDL. Only 38 unique mutations in the human LCAT gene have been reported worldwide. Our French female proband presented with corneal opacity and no detectable plasma LCAT activity using either endogenous or exogenous assays. Her total plasma cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were low (2.34 mmol/l and 0.184 mmol/l, respectively) with a very high cholesterol/cholesteryl ester molar ratio (10.9:1). plasma triglycerides were 0.470 mmol/l with low apo B (40.5 mg/dl), apo A-I (14.7 mg/dl), apo A-II (6.8 mg/dl) and apo E (2.1 mg/dl) levels. plasma lipoprotein analysis by ultracentrifugation showed very low HDL concentrations and a characteristic shift of the lipoprotein profile towards larger, less dense particles. No proteinuria, renal dysfunction or signs of atherosclerosis were noted at age 45. sequence analysis of her LCAT gene showed a novel homozygous TG-deletion at residues 138-139 that resulted in a frameshift causing the generation of a stop codon and premature termination of the LCAT protein at amino acid residue 144. Western blotting of the patient's plasma using a polyclonal IgY primary antibody against human LCAT failed to demonstrate the presence of a truncated LCAT protein. A 53 bp mismatched PCR primer was designed to generate an Fsp 1 restriction site in the wild type sequence of exon 4 where the mutation occurred. The 155 bp PCR product from the wild type allele produced a 103 bp and 52 bp fragment with Fsp 1 and no cleavage products with the mutant allele thus permitting rapid screening for this novel mutation.
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keywords = lipoprotein, deficiency
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3/55. Corneal manifestations of X-linked ichthyosis in two brothers.

    PURPOSE: To report the unusual manifestation of X-linked ichthyosis in two brothers. methods: Leukocyte separation and sterylsulfatase assay are performed to show the deficiency of sterylsulfatase. RESULTS: Two brothers presented in our clinic with cutaneous alterations consistent with X-linked ichthyosis. Ocular examination disclosed fine, flour-like, punctate, evenly, and diffusely distributed opacities of the posterior corneal stroma, close to descemet membrane in both patients. In one patient, superficial, small, granular opacities were detected. They were gray in color and seemed to involve the epithelium and the subepithelial and anterior stromal layers. In both patients, the deficiency of sterylsulfatase could be shown and confirmed the diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: flour-like opacities in the posterior stroma have been shown to be a common manifestation of X-linked ichthyosis. Though the underlying biochemical defect in X-linked ichthyosis has been discovered, the question of how these opacities develop is still a subject of debate. Subepithelial stromal keratopathies or epithelial irregularities are uncommon and are rarely described in the literature. The superficial corneal changes seen in one of our patients are unusual and are not similar to those reported by other authors.
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4/55. Findings in the anterior segment on ultrasound biomicroscopy in Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome.

    PURPOSE: Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome is one of the mucopolysaccharidoses caused by enzyme deficiency (arylsulfatase B) that leads to incomplete degradation and storage of dermatan sulfate. We report a case of mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI; Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome) with corneal involvement and introduce ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) as an examination with which to follow disease progression in relation to deposition in cornea, angle, and iris. methods: We describe a 11-year-old boy with a clinical and laboratorial diagnosis of MPS VI who developed increasing bilateral corneal opacification and decreased visual acuity. He underwent two seriate UBM (50-MHz transducer) evaluations. RESULTS: UBM examination showed diffuse and homogeneous stromal hyper-reflective deposit in both eyes and an increase in peripheral corneal thickness throughout time. CONCLUSION: High-frequency ultrasound documentation of corneal deposit and anterior segment involvement in a patient with Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome is unique, and follow-up revealed thickening of the corneal periphery, which may be related to the progression of the disease (continuous mucopolysaccharide deposits in corneal stroma). UBM was used to locate and document the deposit, as well as to accompany the deposit's evolution, characterizing corneal changes and angle structure involvement.
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keywords = deficiency
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5/55. Corneal degeneration following bicanalicular silicone intubation.

    PURPOSE: A case of bilateral arcus-like corneal degeneration in the medial limbal regions following bilateral bicanalicular silicone intubation is reported. methods: Case report. RESULTS: Bilateral arcus-like corneal opacifications were observed in the medial limbal regions of a 33-year-old woman 3 months after the bilateral silicone intubation with dacryocystorhinostomy. No clinical signs of infection and direct contact of the silicone tubes with those regions of the corneas were observed. Routine laboratory tests revealed no abnormalities, and serum lipoprotein composition was normal. CONCLUSIONS: Silicone tubing appeared to be the precipitating factor of the corneal opacifications that occurred in this patient.
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keywords = lipoprotein
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6/55. Histopathology of corneal changes in lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency.

    PURPOSE: Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency is a rare entity. This dyslipoproteinemia may lead to corneal opacity, renal failure, and arteriosclerosis. methods: Presentation of a 66-year-old man with bilateral corneal opacification due to LCAT deficiency caused by a single-nucleotide exchange in codon 123 of gene. An extracapsular cataract extraction combined with full-thickness corneal transplantation was performed. The corneal specimen was analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: All stromal layers showed extracellular vacuoles with acid mucopolysaccharide contents measuring up to 2.5 microm. Amyloid deposits measuring up to 12 microm in diameter were detected in the stroma and especially predescemetally. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first histologic description of secondary amyloidosis in a full-thickness corneal specimen with LCAT deficiency. The disease is associated with anemia, proteinuria, a lack of plasma high-density lipoprotein, and the presence of target cells. Bilateral corneal opacification is a characteristic of the disease and may allow early detection of homozygous LCAT deficiency by the ophthalmologist.
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keywords = lipoprotein, deficiency
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7/55. Corneal opacifications in a low high density lipoprotein syndrome: suspicion of fish eye disease: a case report.

    A 49 year old patient with progressive massive bilateral corneal opacifications associated with a HDL (high-density-lipoprotein) deficiency is described. The opacifications started at the age of twenty and progressed slowly. They were found diffusely over the cornea, though more in the corneal periphery. A penetrating keratoplasty at the right eye was performed. The diagnosis of Fish eye Disease was put forward on the basis of the ophthalmological, clinical, biochemical and pathological appearance. After 2 year follow-up, the graft was clear. The final distance and near vision of the right eye was 8/10 and Snellen 1 respectively.
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keywords = lipoprotein, deficiency
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8/55. Oligosymptomatic cornea verticillata in a heterozygote for fabry disease: a novel mutation in the alpha-galactosidase gene.

    BACKGROUND: fabry disease is an X-linked genetic disorder involving sphingolipid catabolism, which is caused by lysosomal alpha-galactosidase A deficiency. Ophthalmological findings such as corneal and lens opacities and conjunctival and retinal vessel abnormalities can be the only and/or the first recognizable symptoms, especially in heterozygous females. methods: We report on a 34-year-old German woman with cornea verticillata. The alpha-galactosidase A activity was determined in leukocytes using a fluorescence substrate, and the sequence analysis of the alpha galactosidase A gene was performed with genomic dna. RESULTS: The alpha-galactosidase A activity in leukocytes was significantly low (0.24 nmol/min/mg protein; normal range, 0.4-1.2), which is compatible with a heterozygote for fabry disease. The following sequence analysis revealed a heterozygous transition in position IVS5 2 T > C. Transition of thymine (T) to cytosine (C) affects the donor splice motive of exon 5 and most probably leads to an aberrant splicing procedure of the alpha-galactosidase A gene. CONCLUSION: Our case emphasizes the importance of ophthalmological findings in fabry disease. The subsequent biochemical and molecular analysis provides a secure diagnosis of female carriers of fabry disease.
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keywords = deficiency
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9/55. hydrocephalus, corneal opacities, deafness, valvular heart disease, deformed toes and leptomeningeal fibrous thickening in adult siblings: a new syndrome associated with beta-glucocerebrosidase deficiency and a mosaic population of storage cells.

    We describe three adult siblings with communicating hydrocephalus, corneal opacities, deafness, valvular heart disease, and deformed toes associated with glucosylceramide (glc-cer)-beta-glucosidase deficiency. The common manifestations of gaucher disease were not evident. Supranuclear gaze palsies characteristic of type 3 were noted from early childhood, although the major signs were undeveloped until early adult life. autopsy disclosed thickened leptomeninges with perivascular fibrosis, non-rheumatic calcified aortic and mitral stenosis with marked fibrosis, and mild infiltration of Gaucher cells in the reticuloendothelial organs. In contrast to the slight accumulation of glc-cer in the liver and spleen, the activity of glc-cer-beta-glucosidase was markedly decreased in the tissues, as much as in a patient with type 2 gaucher disease. Common mutations were not found in the glucocerebrosidase gene.
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keywords = deficiency
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10/55. corneal opacity in LCAT disease.

    Deficiency of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase, LCAT disease, is one of the dyslipoproteinemias with characteristic lipid deposits in the cornea. The present report documents the clinicopathologic abnormalities of one case in which a full-thickness corneal specimen was obtained at the time of corneal transplantation. The characteristic clinical abnormality was a progressive corneal opacification with a peripheral arcus that extended into the sclera. The pathologic abnormality consisted of vacuoles prevalent in the anterior corneal stroma by light microscopy and containing extracellular, membranous deposits by electron microscopy. These observations confirm and supplement the previous six pathologic reports of corneal changes in LCAT disease and demonstrate, for the first time, histopathologic evidence of unesterified cholesterol in the corneal stroma of LCAT disease.
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keywords = lipoprotein
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