Cases reported "Corneal Ulcer"

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1/240. Peripheral ulcerative keratitis--an extracutaneous neutrophilic disorder: report of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis, pustular vasculitis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and Sweet's syndrome with an excellent response to cyclosporine therapy.

    The term peripheral ulcerative keratitis represents a spectrum of inflammatory diseases, characterized by cellular infiltration, corneal thinning, and ulceration. Neutrophilic dermatoses are rarely associated with peripheral ulcerative keratitis. To date, peripheral ulcerative keratitis has only been reported in patients with pyoderma gangrenosum. Separate episodes of pyoderma gangrenosum, Sweet's syndrome, and pustular vasculitis developed in a 60-year-old patient with rheumatoid arthritis over an 8-year period. Over the past 2 years, 3 episodes of peripheral ulcerative keratitis occurred. cyclosporine (4 mg/kg/d) treatment was started on confirmation of pyoderma gangrenosum. Over the ensuing 2 years, it became evident that the activity of her ocular and skin diseases, as well as her arthritis, paralleled the administration or cessation of cyclosporine therapy. Dermatologists should be aware of the association of Sweet's syndrome, pyoderma gangrenosum, and pustular vasculitis with peripheral ulcerative keratitis. This rare ocular manifestation and the serious sequelae when left untreated make recognition crucial. cyclosporine proved to be a very effective treatment for all of our patient's diseases.
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2/240. Mycotic keratitis in non-steroid exposed vernal keratoconjunctivitis.

    PURPOSE: To report a patient with vernal keratoconjunctivitis who developed mycotic keratitis in absence of known risk factors. methods: A 17-year-old male suffering from vernal keratoconjunctivitis presented with infective keratitis. The patient had been treated in the past with topical antihistaminics and vasoconstrictors. The patient had not been exposed to topical steroids in 2 years of follow-up. He did not have dry eye or corneal micro or macroerosions prior to the development of infective keratitis. Corneal scrapings were obtained and subjected to KOH wet mount smear, calcofluor and Grams stain as well as bacterial culture sensitivity and fungal culture. RESULTS: Clinical diagnosis of mycotic keratitis in association with vernal conjunctivitis was supported by microbiological investigations. KOH wet mount and calcofluor staining showed presence of filamentous septate hyphae while fungal culture showed growth of aspergillus fumigatus. Antifungal therapy was initiated in the form of topical natamycin 5% suspension to which the patient responded and recovered 6/6 final visual acuity. CONCLUSION: The authors wish to conclude that patients suffering from vernal keratoconjunctivitis, even in the absence of corneal involvement, steroid exposure and trauma, may be at increased risk of developing keratomycosis.
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3/240. Cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive augmented tenoplasty: a new surgical procedure for bilateral severe chemical eye burns.

    PURPOSE: To report on cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive augmented tenoplasty, a new surgical procedure for bilateral severe chemical eye injuries. methods: A 26-year-old man presented with bilateral severe (grade IV) chemical burns involving the eye, periorbital tissues, face, and neck. Despite adequate medical therapy, corneal, limbal, and scleral ulceration progressed in both eyes. Secondary pseudomonas keratitis necessitated therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty in the right eye. Tenoplasty and glued-on rigid gas permeable contact lens were unsuccessful to arrest progression of corneolimboscleral ulceration in the left eye. We applied n-butyl cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive directly on the ulcerating corneal, limbal, and scleral surface to augment tenoplasty. RESULTS: The left ocular surface healed with resultant massive fibrous tissue proliferation and symblepharon on the nasal side. Ocular surface rehabilitation resulted in a vascularized leukomatous corneal opacity with upper temporal clear cornea. The patient achieved visual acuity of 6/36 in the left eye. CONCLUSION: We suggest that cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive-augmented tenoplasty can be undertaken to preserve ocular integrity and retain visual potential in a severe chemical eye injury.
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4/240. Bilateral pseudomonas corneal ulcer in a disposable contact lens wearer.

    PURPOSE: To describe a case of bilateral corneal ulcers caused by pseudomonas in a disposable soft contact lens wearer. This case study discusses the role of patient examination, contact lens care instruction, and adequate patient supervision in reducing the risk of serious potential complications. methods AND RESULTS: A 17 year old student who had been using disposable soft contact lenses on an extended wear basis for 6 months presented complaining of pain in the left eye. When he was examined, a corneal ulcer with surrounding infiltrate was observed in the superior middle periphery of the left eye. Samples were collected for culture, and treatment with fortified cefalotin and gentamicin was started. After 8 hours the patient returned, now complaining of pain in the right eye. Examination of the right eye revealed a diffused keratitis with a mucopurulent discharge. A culture was taken, and the same treatment was instituted. The laboratory tests revealed pseudomonas in both eyes. The bilateral corneal ulcers responded to therapy after 1 week of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: We discuss the factors involved in the occurrence of infectious keratitis in contact lens wearers, and stress that even disposable contact lens wear can be associated with serious complications. This case also highlights extended wear as one of the main risk factors for complications in disposable soft contact lens wear.
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5/240. culture-negative ulcerative keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis.

    A 40-year old man, highly myopic in both eyes, had laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) in the left eye in November 1996. Corneal melting and ulceration and fine striae-like interface infiltrates were noticed 1 day postoperatively. There was no response to intensive topical antibiotics in the form of hourly ofloxacin 3% (Tarivid), and satellite lesions developed on day 4. Corneal scrapings for gram stain and culture were done twice. No bacterial or fungal organisms were identified. Intensive topical fortified vancomycin (50 mg/mL) was added, and the lesions resolved gradually over the ensuing 2 weeks. Eighteen months after LASIK, refraction was -1.50 - 0.75 x 105 in the left eye, and uncorrected visual acuity was 20/70, correctable to 20/25 with spectacles.
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keywords = keratitis
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6/240. An unreported side effect of topical clarithromycin when used successfully to treat mycobacterium avium-intracellulare keratitis.

    PURPOSE: To report a case of mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI) keratitis successfully treated with topical clarithromycin. An unreported side effect of the topical medication is described. methods: A regular follow-up in the corneal clinic was arranged, and a pertinent literature search performed. RESULTS: The use of topical clarithromycin was successful in treating the keratitis. The patient did not complain of any ocular discomfort. Corneal subepithelial deposits that appeared during treatment with clarithromycin resolved shortly after the therapy was discontinued. CONCLUSION: This case report demonstrates that a rare infection like MAI keratitis can be successfully treated with topical clarithromycin. It also highlights the possible corneal deposition of this drug, which resolved after cessation of therapy.
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7/240. chrysosporium parvum keratomycosis.

    PURPOSE: To report a case of corneal infection with chrysosporium parvum, a filamentous fungus usually associated with pulmonary infections. methods: A 43-year-old Saudi man had a corneal stromal infiltrate and perforation of his left eye. He was treated with a therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty and topical and systemic antifungal therapy. Corneal scrapings, microbiologic evaluation, and histopathologic examination of the surgical specimen were performed to establish the diagnosis. After the development of recurrent stromal keratitis at the graft-host junction, similar diagnostic and therapeutic maneuvers were performed. RESULTS: Corneal scrapings and histopathologic examination were positive for numerous septate hyphae with endospores, consistent with a diagnosis of filamentous keratomycosis. Microbiologic isolation confirmed the diagnosis of chrysosporium parvum. Similar diagnostic maneuvers for recurrent keratitis produced identical results. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first case of chrysosporium parvum keratomycosis.
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8/240. Peripheral ulcerative keratitis 'corneal melt' and rheumatoid arthritis: a case series.

    OBJECTIVES: (1) To review the visual and systemic outcomes of patients who developed rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-associated peripheral ulcerative keratitis (PUK). (2) To describe the clinical and serological characteristics of the patients' arthropathy at the time of presentation of this rare condition. (3) To review the aetiology and management of RA-associated PUK. patients and methods. A case series is given of all nine patients within our unit who have developed RA-associated PUK since 1996. Details of the patients' arthropathy and the serological characteristics of the RA at presentation of PUK were noted. The patients' visual outcomes and the development of any significant systemic complications were recorded. RESULTS: All patients had long-standing seropositive, erosive RA. PUK was associated with a poor visual outcome in most patients, five requiring emergency corneal surgery to prevent perforation of the globe. Two patients developed systemic vasculitis within 1 month of PUK onset, one of whom died. CONCLUSION: RA-associated PUK often has a poor visual outcome and its appearance may herald the transformation of a patient's RA into the systemic vasculitic phase. RA-associated PUK should be managed with aggressive immunosuppression if the associated morbidity and mortality are to be avoided. Cell-mediated mechanisms appear to be important in the aetiopathogenesis of PUK and a combination of corticosteroids and cyclosporin is therefore probably the regimen of choice.
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keywords = keratitis
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9/240. Vibrio ocular infections on the U.S. Gulf Coast.

    PURPOSE: To describe the epidemiology of Vibrio eye infections. METHOD: We reviewed the records of a patient from our institution with V. vulnificus keratitis and conducted a literature search for other cases of ocular infections with Vibrio species. RESULTS: A 39-year-old fisherman was struck in his left eye with an oyster shell fragment, developed suppurative V. vulnificus keratitis, and was successfully treated with combined cefazolin and gentamicin. Including our patient, 17 cases of eye infections with Vibrio spp. have been reported, and 11 (65%) involved exposure to seawater or shellfish. Of the seven cases due to V. vulnificus (six keratitis and one endophthalmitis), six had known exposure to shellfish or seawater along the U.S. coast of the gulf of mexico. Of five cases of V. alginolyticus conjunctivitis, three had been exposed to fish or shellfish. Three infections with V. parahaemolyticus (one keratitis and two endophthalmitis) were reported; two of these occurred in people exposed to brackish water on or near the Gulf Coast. Two cases of postsurgical endophthalmitis, one with V. albensis and one with V. fluvialis, also were reported. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to septicemia, gastroenteritis, and wound infections, halophilic noncholera Vibrio species can cause sight-threatening ocular infections. Ocular trauma by shellfish from contaminated water is the most common risk factor for Vibrio conjunctivitis and keratitis. Nearly one half of reported vibrio infections of the eye occurred along the U.S. coast of the gulf of mexico.
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10/240. Infectious keratitis after photorefractive keratectomy in a comanaged setting.

    A 48-year-old man had simultaneous bilateral photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). The surgeon who performed the PRK did not see the patient in follow-up, and there was confusion regarding the comanaging doctor. Therefore, the patient was not examined immediately postoperatively. Several days later, he was hospitalized for an unrelated, painful orthopedic problem and heavily sedated. Seven days after the PRK, an ophthalmologist was consulted for ocular irritation and discharge. Examination showed bilateral, purulent conjunctivitis and severe infectious keratitis in the left eye. The patient was treated with periocular and topical antibiotics. Corneal cultures yielded staphylococcus aureus. The keratitis resolved slowly, leaving the patient with hand motion visual acuity. A corneal transplant and cataract extraction was performed 15 months later, resulting in a best corrected visual acuity of 20/400 because of glaucomatous optic nerve damage. Severe infectious keratitis may occur after PRK. Poor communication between the surgeon, comanaging doctor, and patient may result in treatment delay.
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