Cases reported "Cough"

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1/11. Lichen scrofulosorum.

    A 12-month-old boy with pulmonary tuberculosis developed a papular lichenoid eruption which showed epithelioid granulomas on histology, consistent with lichen scrofulosorum. Stains and cultures for mycobacteria in the skin were negative, and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis failed to detect the dna of mycobacterium tuberculosis in a skin biopsy specimen, thus making lichen scrofulosorum one of the remaining manifestations of M. tuberculosis infection in which evidence of the bacillus has not been found to date. Lichen scrofulosorum is now considered a rare form of tuberculid but should not be neglected.
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2/11. A case of pulmonary arteritis with stenosis of the main pulmonary arteries with positive myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies.

    A 53-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with the main symptoms of productive cough, fever and exertional dyspnoea. Chest X-ray revealed enlargement of the left hilar shadow and cavitary infiltration in the right upper lobe. 99mTechnetium-macroaggregated albumin (99mTc-MAA) perfusion scintigram showed complete hypoperfusion through the entire right lung. A pulmonary angiogram revealed stenotic lesions in the right and left main pulmonary arteries. Right cardiac catheterization showed an elevated right ventricular systolic pressure. There was no evidence of systemic arterial lesions nor vasculitis. The patient was positive for myeloperoxidase (MPO)-antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA) (168 EU). The mycobacterium avium complex sputum culture was positive. The pulmonary stenotic lesions were surgically resected. The resected pulmonary arterial lesions were pathologically diagnosed as non-specific vasculitis. The cavitary lesion disappeared 6 months after the surgery. Two years after the surgery, although the MPO-ANCA level had decreased to 12 EU, stenosis of the pulmonary arteries reappeared. It is suggested that the patient became positive for MPO-ANCA in association with the mycobacterium avium complex infection, and that the presence of MPO-ANCA may not be related to the development of pulmonary stenosis of the main pulmonary arteries.
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3/11. Pulmonary lymphohistiocytic reactions temporally related to etanercept therapy.

    This report details the pulmonary pathologic findings in four patients with rheumatoid arthritis, who developed new onset of pulmonary signs and symptoms with alveolar infiltrates temporally related to the institution of etanercept therapy. biopsy findings showed an interstitial and air space lymphohistiocytic infiltrate with non-necrotizing granulomas, in the setting of negative cultures and special stains for microorganisms. The association with etanercept therapy and granulomatous reactions is discussed along with the differential diagnosis.
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4/11. influenza b virus associated pneumonia: report of one case.

    influenza a virus is a more common cause of pneumonia than influenza b virus. Influenza virus pneumonia complicated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is rare and has a high mortality rate. In addition to pneumonia, influenza occasionally causes neurologic, cardiac, renal, or muscular complications. Hepatic involvement in influenza virus infection has been rarely reported. We reported the case of a 7-year-old girl who was initially treated for upper respiratory tract infection, but she was transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit for intubation and ventilation after her condition deteriorated to lobar pneumonia with ARDS and liver function impairment within 7 days. Influenza B virus infection was confirmed by virus culture and serological study. Respiratory viruses, such as respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, influenza virus, and parainfluenza virus, are common causes of pneumonia in children; moreover, they should be considered especially in the presence of persistent leukopenia, low CRP value, lack of growth of bacterial cultures, and poor response to antimicrobial therapy. We should describe its course, diagnosis, and treatments in detail; furthermore, we reported this case to emphasize that influenza b virus may cause transient liver dysfunction and it is an etiology of pneumonia as well as ARDS.
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5/11. A case of pulmonary cryptococcosis by capsule-deficient cryptococcus neoformans.

    Pulmonary infection by capsule-deficient cryptococcus neoformans (CDCN) is a very rare form of pneumonia and it is seldom seen in the immunocompetent host. The authors experienced a case of pulmonary cryptococcosis by CDCN in 25-year-old woman who was without any significant underlying disease. The diagnosis was made from the percutaneous lung biopsy and special tissue staining, including Fontana-Masson silver (FMS) staining. Fungal culture confirmed the diagnosis afterward. Her clinical and radiologic features improved under treatment with fluconazol. It's known that CDCN is not so readily confirmed because fungal culture does not always result in growth of the organism and the empirical fungal stain is not helpful for the differentiation between CDCN and the other infections that are caused by the nonencapsulated yeast-like organisms. In this report, we emphasize the diagnostic value of performing FMS staining for differentiating a CDCN infection from the other confusing nonencapsulated yeast-like organisms.
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6/11. Pertussis in an adult man infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.

    A 25-year-old man infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) presented with paroxysmal cough and dyspnea of 4-months duration. An extensive evaluation including bronchoscopy was negative. A nasopharyngeal swab was positive by direct fluorescent antigen detection and culture for bordetella pertussis. Respiratory isolation, treatment with erythromycin, and prophylaxis of household contacts was used to eradicate the organism and prevent transmission. Pertussis should be considered as a cause of prolonged cough and dyspnea in patients with hiv infection. The course of this patient was consistent with the concept that cell-mediated immunity is necessary for elimination of B. pertussis.
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7/11. Chronic cough associated with subacute bacterial endocarditis.

    Although the literature on subacute bacterial endocarditis from both the preantibiotic and antibiotic eras mentions cough as a symptom, neither bacteremia nor endocarditis is listed in reviews on chronic cough. Herein we describe a 74-year-old man who underwent an extensive workup as an outpatient because of chronic cough of 7 months' duration. Chest roentgenography, chest and sinus computed tomography, fiberoptic bronchoscopy, gallium scan, transthoracic echocardiography, and other studies revealed no apparent cause for his nonproductive cough. Because of a persistently increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate and associated weight loss, blood cultures were obtained, all of which grew streptococcus constellatus. A transesophageal echocardiogram revealed mitral valve vegetation. After antibiotic therapy was administered, the patient's cough completely resolved. He has experienced no coughing for more than 14 months. bacteremia in conjunction with endocarditis should be added to the list of uncommon causes of chronic cough. The mechanism of cough is unknown.
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8/11. Infections due to parainfluenza virus type 4 in children.

    Parainfluenza viruses are a major cause of hospitalization for respiratory illness in children. The spectrum of clinical illness associated with infection due to parainfluenza type 4 virus has not been well defined. It is technically difficult to isolate the virus in tissue culture, and because illness is generally reported to be mild, in many cases, patients may not seek medical attention. We describe a series of 10 children with parainfluenza type 4 virus infection who were seen at the Montreal Children's Hospital between 1988 and 1992. There were five males and five females whose average age was 29.7 months. infection was associated with symptoms of bronchiolitis or pneumonia in 5 children, paroxysmal coughing in 3 infants, apnea in 1 newborn, and aseptic meningitis in 1 child. hospitalization was required for 8 of the 10 children. It appears that infection with parainfluenza type 4 virus may be more common than previously recognized, and it may be associated with more severe infections.
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9/11. The many faces of atypical sinusitis.

    The physician must be alert to the possibility of unsuspected sinusitis when evaluating a patient with chronic cough, sore throat, fever of unknown origin, supraglottitis, pneumonia, or headache. This article presents four cases in which atypical or asymptomatic sinusitis was discovered that could have caused significant or potentially life-threatening complications. In each case, the sinusitis was initially unsuspected. A complete nasal evaluation is warranted following decongestion of the nasal cavity when conditions are present. A screening sinus computed tomography scan may be indicated when sinusitis is strongly suspected even in the absence of typical clinical symptoms. Exact identification of the organism causing the infection may require sinus aspirate or tissue culture.
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10/11. Two cases of lower respiratory tract infection due to chlamydia pneumonia in singapore.

    chlamydia pneumoniae, previously known as chlamydia psittaci strain TWAR, causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infection. We report the first two cases of culture-positive chlamydia pneumoniae lower respiratory infection in singapore. Both patients had underlying fibrosing alveolitis and presented with a history of prolonged productive cough and fever. chlamydia pneumoniae was isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in the absence of other pathogens. The patients responded clinically to three weeks of oral doxycycline therapy. infection due to chlamydia pneumoniae should be considered when a patient with community-acquired pneumonia fails to respond to the usual standard antimicrobial therapy.
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