Cases reported "Coxsackievirus Infections"

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1/23. Progressive liver calcifications in neonatal coxsackievirus infection.

    Coxsackievirus group B can cause a severe systemic disease in the perinatal period. Severe manifestations like meningitis, encephalitis, hepatitis, and myocarditis have been previously reported. A case of a twin neonate infected by coxsackievirus group B is described, who developed progressive extensive hepatic calcifications demonstrated by ultrasound and computed tomography with follow-up. Hepatic calcifications in coxsackievirus infection have not been previously reported.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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2/23. SPECT in focal enterovirus encephalitis: evidence for local cerebral vasculitis.

    We report a 4-year-old, left-handed male with focal coxsackievirus A3 encephalitis who presented with seizures and acquired aphasia. electroencephalography exhibited focal spike discharges over the right frontal regions, but cranial magnetic resonance imaging did not reveal any structural abnormalities. However, brain single-photon emission computed tomography performed during the acute phase disclosed focal hypoperfusion in the right frontal lobe, consistent with decreased regional cerebral blood flow in the territory of some branches of the right cerebral anterior artery. Without specific treatment, the patient recovered completely within 1 month, when brain single-photon emission computed tomography images returned to normal and cranial magnetic resonance imaging still demonstrated no abnormalities. The present case suggests the possible role of transient local cerebral vasculitis in the pathogenesis of focal enterovirus encephalitis.
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ranking = 6
keywords = encephalitis
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3/23. Acute liver failure in pregnancy. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Liver disease in pregnancy can be grossly divided into those disorders coincidentally occurring during the pregnant state and hepatic diseases limited to pregnancy. Numerous infectious agents can result in acute hepatitis and include not only the hepatitis viruses--A, B, C and E--but herpesvirus and cytomegalovirus as well. Coxsackie B viruses can cause several clinical presentations, ranging from asymptomatic to mild febrile illness to myocarditis and meningitis. Rarely has coxsackievirus infection been associated with fulminant hepatic failure. CASE: A Coxsackie B virus infection resulted in acute liver failure in a gravid woman. The patient was managed expectantly, with resolution of the liver disease and delivery five weeks after discharge. CONCLUSION: The onset of hepatic disease is insidious, with only vague symptoms or minor complaints often heralding the progression to liver failure. A careful history, physical examination and appropriate diagnostic tests can help determine the etiology of hepatic disease and help decide whether expectant management of the gravid patient or immediate delivery is appropriate.
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ranking = 0.0024855234024047
keywords = herpes
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4/23. Coxsackie virus infection of the placenta associated with neurodevelopmental delays in the newborn.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if viral infection of the placenta was associated with long-term neurodevelopmental delays in the newborn. methods: Placental tissue from seven newborn infants with severe respiratory failure and subsequent neurodevelopmental abnormalities as well as ten normal controls and five cases of known placental infection (cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, and parvovirus) were tested by in situ hybridization or reverse transcriptase in situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for adenovirus, coxsackie virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein Barr virus, herpes simplex virus, influenza a virus, picornavirus, polyoma virus, parvovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, rotavirus, and varicella zoster virus. RESULTS: Coxsackie virus rna was detected in six of the seven cases, and in none of the ten normal controls or five cases with known viral infection. Viral rna localized primarily to the Hofbauer cells and trophoblasts of the terminal villi. Immunohistochemical analysis for the coxsackie virus antigen VP1 yielded equivalent results. CONCLUSIONS: In utero coxsackie virus of the placenta is associated with the development of severe respiratory failure and central nervous system sequelae in the newborn. This underscores the importance of detailed pathologic and viral examination of the placenta in cases of systemic illness in the newborn.
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ranking = 0.0049710468048093
keywords = herpes
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5/23. Severe Coxsackie virus B infection in preterm newborns treated with pleconaril.

    Four preterm newborn infants with severe multisystem Coxsackie virus B infection were treated with an oral suspension of pleconaril (5 mg/kg per day). The patients had myocarditis, fulminant hepatitis, meningoencephalitis and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. All four infants recovered, and no adverse effects of the treatment were noted. CONCLUSION: pleconaril needs to be comprehensively evaluated in this population.
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ranking = 1.6571054362994
keywords = encephalitis, meningoencephalitis
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6/23. A fatal case of coxsackievirus B4 meningoencephalitis.

    BACKGROUND: Coxsackieviruses and echoviruses are common causes of aseptic meningitis, but they rarely cause life-threatening illness. We report a fatal case of coxsackievirus B4 meningoencephalitis in a woman who developed extrapyramidal symptoms suggestive of encephalitis lethargica. The exact causative agent of encephalitis lethargica has rarely been found, but most cases of the syndrome are assumed to be of viral origin. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 33-year-old woman previously treated with methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide for Henoch-Schonlein purpura was transferred from a referring hospital because of sore throat, fever, and chills. Her neurologic findings progressed from headache with mild photophobia to lethargy, cogwheeling, increased tone in all 4 limbs, and brisk reflexes. The patient was diagnosed as having coxsackievirus B4 meningoencephalitis and, despite treatment with the experimental antiviral agent pleconaril, died of an overwhelming central nervous system infection and myocarditis. magnetic resonance imaging showed focal hyperintense lesions in the substantia nigra that corresponded to the location of pathological changes seen at autopsy. CONCLUSIONS: This patient had a fulminant coxsackievirus B4 viral meningoencephalitis with a clinical pattern reminiscent of encephalitis lethargica and striking focal abnormalities in the substantia nigra identified on magnetic resonance imaging. The magnetic resonance imaging findings correlated with pathological changes identified at autopsy that were similar to the pathological findings observed in patients with encephalitis lethargica and postencephalitic parkinsonism. It is likely that the patient's immunocompromised state led to an overwhelming infection from an otherwise relatively innocuous viral infection.
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ranking = 15.599738054096
keywords = encephalitis, meningoencephalitis
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7/23. Focal encephalitis with enterovirus infections.

    We report on four pediatric patients with enterovirus infections who were admitted to the hospital with signs or symptoms of acute, focal encephalitis. All four experienced focal seizures. Each had a cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis at the initial lumbar puncture. In all four patients the diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis was entertained. Each child improved spontaneously within a few days of admission to the hospital, and only one had residual neurologic abnormalities at the time of discharge. A brief review of these cases, and three additional cases from the literature, indicate that the enteroviruses, particularly the group A Coxsackieviruses, are rare causes of acute focal encephalitis in children and adolescents.
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ranking = 7.0024855234024
keywords = encephalitis, herpes
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8/23. Coxsackie A9 focal encephalitis associated with acute infantile hemiplegia and porencephaly.

    The factors underlying acute infantile hemiplegia are seldom identified. Coxsackie A9 focal encephalitis was documented for the first time in a 3-month-old infant with fever, hemiconvulsions, and hemiplegia followed by a static motor deficit and epilepsy. It has been suggested that the acute infantile hemiplegia associated with encephalitis results from an arteritis or venous sinus thrombosis with subsequent cerebral infarction. However, this was not observed in our patient. Rather, a series of brain scans, computerized tomograms, and a cerebral angiogram clearly documented the evolution of a focal necrotizing encephaloclastic process resulting in a porencephalic cyst. Serial cerebrospinal fluid viral cultures were necessary to isolate the etiologic agent (tcoxsackie A9). The infant did not have a neutralizing antibody response to the infecting viral agent despite an apparently intact immune system, which possibly may be explained by the developed of immune tolerance or an insufficient amount of infecting viral antigen. This emphasizes that serologic studies alone may not be adequate to document an acute central nervous system viral infection. This patient also typifies the poor prognosis in infants presenting with acute hemiplegia, fever, and convulsions in the absence of cerebrovascular occlusion.
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ranking = 6
keywords = encephalitis
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9/23. Hypoglycorrhachia and coxsackie B3 meningoencephalitis.

    The case of a 3-week-old infant with Coxsackie B3 meningoencephalitis is discussed. Hypoglycorrhachia and neutrophils in the cerebrospinal fluid characterized the first ten days of her illness. Coxsackie B3 should be added to the list of enteroviruses that can cause hypoglycorrhachia during infections of the central nervous system in children.
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ranking = 8.285527181497
keywords = encephalitis, meningoencephalitis
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10/23. Coxsackie B antigen in the central nervous system of a patient with fatal acute encephalitis: immunohistochemical studies of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.

    A case of fatal acute encephalitis due to Coxsackie B1 virus is described. Confirmation of Coxsackie B virus as the etiological agent of encephalitis was based on identification of the virus antigen in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections. In the past, the diagnosis was obtained by serological studies of peripheral blood and viral isolation. This is the first report in which indirect immunofluorescent and immunoperoxidase methods using rabbit antiserum raised against Coxsackie B types 1-6 was utilized in determining the etiology of encephalitis. It must be emphasized that these methods can be used both on biopsy or autopsy specimens, even retrospectively.
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ranking = 7
keywords = encephalitis
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