Cases reported "Cranial Nerve Diseases"

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1/62. Conservative facial nerve management in jugular foramen schwannomas.

    OBJECTIVE: Although transposition of the facial nerve is crucial in infiltrative vascular lesions involving the jugular foramen, the objective was to show that a conservative approach to management of the facial nerve is sufficient with jugular foramen neuromas because of their noninfiltrative, less vascular nature and medial location in the jugular foramen. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case review. SETTING: Tertiary, private, multiphysician, otologic practice. patients: Sixteen patients with jugular foramen schwannoma (18 procedures) treated between January 1975 and October 1995. The 8 male and 8 female patients ranged in age from 13 to 66 years (mean age 47.7 years). INTERVENTION: One-stage, total jugular foramen neuroma removal without transposition of the facial nerve, using a variety of surgical approaches. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: facial nerve transposition (yes or no), House-Brackmann facial nerve grade, lower cranial nerve status, complications. RESULTS: One-stage total tumor removal was accomplished in all the cases. In 13 (72%) of the neuromas, removal was accomplished without facial nerve transposition. Transposition was performed in 2 revision cases in which scar tissue from a previous operation prevented complete control of the carotid artery and safe removal, 2 cases with large tumor extension anteriorly to the petrous apex, and 1 case with extensive involvement of the middle ear. A House-Brackmann facial nerve Grade I or II was obtained in 16 of the 18 procedures, with 1 Grade III and 1 case that remained Grade V, as it was preoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: One-stage, total tumor removal can be achieved with excellent control of the important vascular structures and without transposition of the facial nerve in a majority of jugular foramen schwannomas.
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2/62. Chiari malformation, cervical spine anomalies, and neurologic deficits in velocardiofacial syndrome.

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the prevalence of Chiari malformation, cervical spine anomalies, and neurologic deficits in patients with velocardio-facial syndrome. This study was a prospective evaluation of 41 consecutive patients with velocardiofacial syndrome, documented by fluorescence in situ hybridization, between March of 1994 and September of 1998. The 23 girls and 18 boys ranged in age from 0.5 to 15.2 years, with a mean age of 6.7 years. Nineteen patients were assessed with magnetic resonance imaging, 39 underwent lateral cephalometric radiography, and all patients were examined for neurologic deficits. Eight of 19 patients (42 percent) had anomalies of the craniovertebral junction, including Chiari type I malformations (n = 4), occipitalization of the atlas (n = 3), and narrowing of the foramen magnum (n = 1). One patient with Chiari malformation required suboccipital craniectomy with laminectomy and decompression. Fourteen of 41 patients (34 percent) had demonstrated neurologic deficits; 10 patients (24 percent) had velar paresis (6 unilateral and 4 bilateral). Chiari malformations, cervical spine anomalies, and neurologic deficits are common in velocardiofacial syndrome. Because these findings may influence the outcome of surgical intervention, routine assessment of patients with velocardiofacial syndrome should include careful orofacial examination, lateral cephalometric radiography, and magnetic resonance imaging of the craniovertebral junction.
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3/62. ethylene glycol ingestion resulting in brainstem and midbrain dysfunction.

    INTRODUCTION: ethylene glycol toxicity has produced central nervous system abnormalities including coma, cerebral edema, and cranial nerve dysfunction. CASE REPORT: A 26-year-old male developed widespread brainstem and midbrain dysfunction with corresponding cranial computed tomography findings after ingesting ethylene glycol. The computed tomography scan which was obtained 3 days after ethylene glycol ingestion showed low density areas in the basal ganglia, thalami, midbrain, and upper pons. The neurologic findings in our patient reflected dysfunction of all the areas of hypodensity on the cranial computed tomography scan. A magnetic resonance imaging of the brain obtained 24 days after ingestion revealed bilateral putamen necrosis. The patient's neurologic sequelae resolved over the following 4 months.
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4/62. Leptomeningeal glioblastoma presenting with multiple cranial neuropathies and confusion.

    glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the commonest primary malignant neoplasm of the CNS. Usually, patients present with seizures and headache but in the elderly, confusion and generalised cognitive decline are more frequently the initial features. Multiple cranial nerve lesions as a manifestation of leptomeningeal meningitis is a rare presentation of GBM. The diagnosis is not often suggestive on either brain computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and is usually confirmed by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology or histology. We describe the case of an 80-year-old man, who presented with multiple cranial nerve palsies and confusion secondary to leptomeningeal gliomatosis, in whom GBM was detected along the intra-ventricular lining of the left lateral ventricle at ventriculoscopy, in the absence of a distinct parenchymal lesion.
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5/62. Unusual occipital condyle fracture with multiple nerve palsies and Wallenberg syndrome.

    A 52-year-old male presented with an extremely rare fracture of the occipital condyle involving the jugular foramen with marked medial rostrad displacement of the fragments. He had ipsilateral VII through XII nerves palsies and Wallenberg syndrome. Conservative treatment did not improve the cranial nerve palsies. A high-resolution CT-scan is essential to visualize these fractures.
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6/62. Spontaneous carotid dissection presenting lower cranial nerve palsies.

    Cranial nerve palsy in internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection occurs in 3--12% of all patients, but in 3% of these a syndrome of hemicranias and ipsilateral cranial nerve palsy is the sole manifestation of ICA dissection, and in 0.5% of cases there is only cranial nerve palsy without headache. We present two cases of lower cranial nerve palsy. The first patient, a 49-year-old woman, developed left eleventh and twelfth cranial nerve palsies and ipsilateral neck pain. The angio-RM showed an ICA dissection with stenosis of 50%, beginning about 2 cm before the carotid channel. The patient was treated with oral anticoagulant therapy and gradually improved, until complete clinical recovery. The second patient, a 38-year-old woman, presented right hemiparesis and neck pain. The left ICA dissection, beginning 2 cm distal to the bulb, was shown by ultrasound scanning of the carotid and confirmed by MR angiogram and angiography with lumen stenosis of 90%. Following hospitalisation, 20 days from the onset of symptoms, paresis of the left trapezius and sternocleidomastoideus muscles became evident. The patient was treated with oral anticoagulant therapy and only a slight right arm paresis was present at 10 months follow-up. Cranial nerve palsy is not rare in ICA dissection, and the lower cranial nerve palsies in various combinations constitute the main syndrome, but in most cases these are present with the motor or sensory deficit due to cerebral ischemia, along with headache or Horner's syndrome. In the diagnosis of the first case, there was further difficulty because the cranial nerve palsy was isolated without hemiparesis, and the second case presented a rare association of hemiparesis and palsy of the eleventh cranial nerve alone. Compression or stretching of the nerve by the expanded artery may explain the palsies, but an alternative cause is also possible, namely the interruption of the nutrient vessels supplying the nerve, which in our patients is more likely.
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7/62. Unusual arachnoid cyst of the quadrigeminal cistern in an adult presenting with apneic spells and normal pressure hydrocephalus--case report.

    A 67-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic with symptoms of normal pressure hydrocephalus, lower cranial nerve pareses, and pyramidal and cerebellar signs associated with respiratory disturbances. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 4.7 x 5.4 cm quadrigeminal arachnoid cyst causing severe compression of the tectum and entire brain stem, aqueduct, and cerebellum, associated with moderate dilation of the third and lateral ventricles. Emergency surgery was undertaken due to sudden loss of consciousness and impaired breathing. The cyst was totally removed by midline suboccipital craniotomy in the prone position. Postoperatively, her symptoms improved except for the ataxia and impaired breathing. She was monitored cautiously for over 15 days. CT at discharge on the 18th postoperative day revealed decreased cyst size to 3.9 x 4.1 cm. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of the arachnoid cyst of the quadrigeminal cistern. The patient died of respiratory problems on the 5th day after discharge. Quadrigeminal arachnoid cysts may compress the brain stem and cause severe respiratory disturbances, which can be fatal due to apneic spells. patients should be monitored continuously in the preoperative and postoperative period until the restoration of autonomous ventilation is achieved.
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8/62. Neurological manifestations of the oculodentodigital dysplasia syndrome.

    Oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD) (MIM 164200) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited disorder affecting the development of the face, eyes, limbs and dentition. Neurological complications are thought to be occasional manifestations of the disorder. This report illustrates the neurological manifestations by a pedigree of two ODDD patients with spastic paraparesis, cerebral white matter hyperintensity and basal ganglia hypointensity. A systematic review of the English, French, German and Italian literature on ODDD is also provided to summarize the neurological manifestations of the disorder. 243 previously described ODDD cases presented a spectrum of neurological manifestation including spasticity (25), subcortical white matter lesions (9) and basal ganglia changes (6) on MRI. Additional findings consisted of gaze palsy and squinting (28), bladder and bowel disturbances (21), visual loss (20) and blindness (4), hearing loss (15), ataxia (11), nystagmus (9), muscle weakness (5) and paresthesias (3). Neurological manifestations, including spasticity associated with MRI changes, are an underrecognized feature in the ODDD phenotype. A clinical guide to the neurological manifestations of ODDD may assist in the assessment of patients with this condition.
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keywords = cerebral
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9/62. accessory nerve neuroma presenting as recurrent jugular foramen syndrome.

    We report a patient with spontaneous recovery and recurrence of a jugular foramen syndrome secondary to an accessory nerve neuroma. He showed sudden onset of unilateral palsy of the ninth, tenth and eleventh cranial nerves in 1982. He recovered almost fully and in 1990 the palsies recurred. MRI revealed a small mass in the right jugular foramen. The tumour was resected via suboccipital craniectomy, and diagnosed as a neuroma of the eleventh cranial nerve.
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10/62. Gliomatosis cerebri in a young patient showing various cranial nerve manifestations: a case report.

    A case of gliomatosis cerebri in a 27-year-old man showing various cranial nerve manifestations is described. He was diagnosed as having cranial mononeuritis multiplex (bilateral oculomotor nerve paralysis, left facial nerve paralysis, bulbar palsy manifestations, and hypoglossal nerve paralysis) and was hospitalized in the neurology department on August 1, 2000. Although he continued to visit the neurology department after discharge, his manifestations showed no improvement. He was sent to our department for brain biopsy in August 2001. A biopsy performed at the Sylvian fissure from the frontal lobe/temporal lobe cortex showed high intensity on T2-weighted and Flair magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The pathological findings were diffuse low-grade astrocytoma infiltrating between the pia mater and the cerebral cortex. We believed that the astrocytoma spreading on the subpia mater was responsible for the various cranial nerve manifestations, and we started whole-brain irradiation (46 Gy) interferon (IFN)-beta D.I.V. from September 2001. The pathological findings of the brain biopsy showed diffuse astrocytoma. The clinical presentation was dramatically improved after radiotherapy. It seemed that this tumor had spread along the subpia mater and subependyma. When he was discharged in early December, he walked by himself. The characteristic features of this case are that no lesion in the cerebellum or brain stem was found on MRI, even though the main manifestations were cerebello-brain stem manifestations, and biopsy of the cerebral cortex revealed astrocytoma. It should be noted that the clinical manifestations of astrocytoma in some cases are dissociated from the imaging observations.
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