Cases reported "Cranial Nerve Diseases"

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1/41. Herpes zoster of the trigeminal nerve third branch: a case report and review of the literature.

    literature review AND CASE REPORT: A literature review of Herpes zoster of the trigeminal nerve is presented. Included are differential diagnosis and treatment modalities that will enable the dental practitioner to identify and manage this disease. A case report is provided to amplify this timely information.
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ranking = 1
keywords = zoster
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2/41. Foix-Chavany-Marie (anterior operculum) syndrome in childhood: a reappraisal of Worster-Drought syndrome.

    Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome (FCMS) is a distinct clinical picture of suprabulbar (pseudobulbar) palsy due to bilateral anterior opercular lesions. Symptoms include anarthria/severe dysarthria and loss of voluntary muscular functions of the face and tongue, and problems with mastication and swallowing with preservation of reflex and autonomic functions. FCMS may be congenital or acquired as well as persistent or intermittent. The aetiology is heterogeneous; vascular events in adulthood, nearly exclusively affecting adults who experience multiple subsequent strokes; CNS infections; bilateral dysgenesis of the perisylvian region; and epileptic disorders. Of the six cases reported here, three children had FCMS as the result of meningoencephalitis, two children had FCMS due to a congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome, and one child had intermittent FCMS due to an atypical benign partial epilepsy with partial status epilepticus. The congenital dysgenetic type of FCMS and its functional epileptogenic variant share clinical and EEG features suggesting a common pathogenesis. Consequently, an increased vulnerability of the perisylvian region to adverse events in utero is discussed. In honour of Worster-Drought, who described the clinical entity in children 40 years ago, the term Worster-Drought syndrome is proposed for this unique disorder in children.
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ranking = 0.0055190723131139
keywords = encephalitis
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3/41. Mental nerve neuropathy as a result of primary herpes simplex virus infection in the oral cavity. A case report.

    We describe a 25-year-old woman who had mental nerve neuropathy. The symptom was attributed to herpes simplex virus infection, which appeared as herpetic gingivostomatitis 4 days after the extraction of the lower third molar. This case suggests that herpes simplex virus can infect the inferior alveolar nerve through an extraction wound and can induce mental nerve neuropathy.
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ranking = 0.08979432627241
keywords = herpes
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4/41. Ramsay Hunt syndrome presenting as a cranial polyneuropathy.

    Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) is herpes zoster of the facial nerve, frequently associated with VIII cranial nerve involvement, but on rare occasions other cranial nerves are affected as well. We present the case of a 63-year-old woman with RHS with involvement of V, VII, VIII, IX, and XII cranial nerves. The patient showed significant improvement after treatment with acyclovir and prednisolone. RHS should be recognized as a polycranial neuritis characterized by damage to sensory and motor nerves, including the facial nerve and the auditory-vestibular apparatus. Early institution of treatment with antiviral agents may help hasten healing. Involvement of the XIIth cranial nerve has not been reported previously.
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ranking = 0.61677015576197
keywords = herpes zoster, zoster, herpes
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5/41. Maxillary osteomyelitis and spontaneous tooth exfoliation after herpes zoster.

    Reports of spontaneous tooth exfoliation and osteonecrosis trigeminal herpes zoster are extremely rare and have been sporadic. This article reports a pertinent case of a 50-year-old man who exhibited prodromal odontalgia before the appearance of vesicular mucocutaneous lesions, together with severe destruction of the maxillary bone and exfoliation of multiple teeth. This patient was successfully treated using a unique closed nasal-vestibular drainage system for the ultimate control of maxillary bone viability. A review and analysis of the clinical aspects and the pathogenesis of herpes zoster and bone necrosis are discussed.
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ranking = 3.7006209345718
keywords = herpes zoster, zoster, herpes
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6/41. Maxillary zoster with corneal involvement.

    A case, of maxillary zoster with corneal involvement in a young patient is described. Corneal involvement in maxillary zoster (medline search) is rare.
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ranking = 1.2
keywords = zoster
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7/41. Delayed cranial neuropathy after neurosurgery caused by herpes simplex virus reactivation: report of three cases.

    BACKGROUND: Delayed cranial neuropathy is an uncommon complication of neurosurgical interventions of which the exact etiology is uncertain. Several authors have hypothesized that reactivation of herpesviruses may play a role. CASE DESCRIPTIONS: The first patient underwent microvascular decompression of the left facial nerve because of hemifacial spasm. Nine days postoperatively, he developed severe facial weakness on the ipsilateral side. The polymerase chain reaction for herpes simplex virus (HSV) was positive in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Treatment with intravenous acyclovir was initiated, after which a rapid and marked improvement was observed. The second patient developed left-sided facial numbness 20 days after microvascular decompression of the left facial nerve. The polymerase chain reaction for HSV was positive in the CSF. Treatment with intravenous acyclovir resulted in full recovery. The third patient underwent a suboccipital craniectomy with excision of a meningioma located at the left petrosal apex. Three months postoperatively, she developed multiple cranial neuropathies (involving cranial nerves V, VI, VIII, and XII). This was accompanied by serologic evidence of HSV reactivation and a positive polymerase chain reaction for HSV in the CSF. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous acyclovir. CONCLUSIONS: The 3 reported cases provide evidence that delayed postoperative cranial neuropathy can be caused by HSV reactivation and can involve multiple cranial nerves. An increased awareness of this treatable postoperative complication is warranted.
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ranking = 0.08979432627241
keywords = herpes
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8/41. herpes zoster oticus associated with facial, auditory and trigeminal involvement.

    We report a case of herpes zoster oticus with involvement of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve and loss of taste sensation in the anterior two third of the tongue. Infranuclear facial palsy and sensorineural deafness were also present.
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ranking = 1.416770155762
keywords = herpes zoster, zoster, herpes
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9/41. Disseminated intraparenchymal microgranulomas in the brainstem in central nervous system sarcoidosis.

    We report a 70-year-old woman with sarcoidosis and multiple cranial nerve palsy. The patient suffered from dysarthria, dysphagia and weakness of the upper and lower extremities and died of sepsis. No abnormalities were noted in brain MRI. At autopsy, numerous epithelioid granulomas with Langhans giant cells were present in the bilateral lungs, including the hilar lymph nodes. The brain had a normal external appearance. Histologically, there were brainstem parenchymal lesions consisting of many microgranulomas, lymphocytic infiltration, activated microglias and astrocytosis. Perivascular lympocytic cuffing was also seen. Neither granulomas nor lymphocytic infiltration were seen in the leptomeninges. The present case was considered to be a peculiar type of neurosarcoidosis, that is, "sarcoid brainstem encephalitis".
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ranking = 0.0055190723131139
keywords = encephalitis
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10/41. Paraneoplastic rhombencephalitis and brachial plexopathy in two cases of amphiphysin auto-immunity.

    Amphiphysin, a synaptic vesicle protein, is an auto-immune target in rare cases of paraneoplastic neurological disorders. We report two additional cases with distinct neurological syndromes and paraneoplastic anti-amphiphysin antibodies. The first patient, a 59-year-old man, presented with cerebellar and cranial nerve dysfunction and small cell lung carcinoma. The second, a 77-year- old woman, presented with left brachial plexopathy followed by sensorimotor neuropathy and breast carcinoma.
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ranking = 0.022076289252455
keywords = encephalitis
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