Cases reported "Cranial Nerve Diseases"

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1/26. Schwannoma in patients with isolated unilateral trochlear nerve palsy.

    PURPOSE: To describe the clinical features of patients with isolated unilateral trochlear nerve palsy secondary to imaging-defined schwannoma of the trochlear nerve. methods: A chart review of all patients seen at the Neuro-ophthalmology Unit at Emory University since 1989. Of 221 patients with trochlear nerve palsy, six had a lesion consistent with a trochlear nerve schwannoma. RESULTS: The six patients had isolated unilateral trochlear nerve palsy. Duration of diplopia before diagnosis averaged 6 months. magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated circumscribed, enhancing lesions along the cisternal course of the trochlear nerve, all measuring less than 5 mm in greatest dimension. Five of the patients were seen in follow-up, over periods ranging from 11 to 26 months from initial presentation (mean, 15.6 months; standard deviation, 6.0 months). All of these patients remained stable except one, who was slightly worse at 15 months by clinical measurements and magnetic resonance imaging. None of these patients have developed additional symptoms or signs of cranial nerve or central nervous system involvement. CONCLUSIONS: The differential diagnosis of an isolated unilateral fourth cranial nerve palsy should include an intrinsic neoplasm of the trochlear nerve. magnetic resonance imaging is useful, both for diagnosis and follow-up. These patients can remain stable and may not require neurosurgical intervention.
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ranking = 1
keywords = neoplasm
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2/26. Neuro-ophthalmologic manifestations of Maffucci's syndrome and Ollier's disease.

    patients with Ollier's disease (multiple skeletal enchondromas) and Maffucci's syndrome (multiple enchondromas associated with subcutaneous hemangiomas) may develop skull base chondrosarcomas or low-grade astrocytomas as a delayed consequence of these disorders. We report three patients with Ollier's disease and Maffucci's syndrome who had diplopia as the initial manifestation of intracranial tumors. Since patients with Maffucci's syndrome and Ollier's disease are at risk for the delayed development of brain and systemic neoplasms, neuroophthalmologists must be aware of the need for long-term surveillance in patients affected by these conditions.
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ranking = 1
keywords = neoplasm
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3/26. Neuromyotonia of the abducens nerve after hypophysectomy and radiation.

    The clinical signs of the rarely encountered ocular neuromyotonia consist of transient involuntary tonic contraction and delayed relaxation of single or multiple extraocular muscles, resulting in episodic diplopia. With a mean time delay of 3.5 years, this motility disorder frequently follows tumor excision or adjuvant radiation near the skull base. Ocular neuromyotonia may reflect inappropriate discharge from oculomotor neurons with unstable cell membranes because of segmental demyelinization by tumor compression and radiation-induced microangiopathy. In the present paper, the authors present the case of a 53-year-old patient with a history of transsphenoidal hypophysectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy, who underwent strabismus surgery for abducens palsy.
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ranking = 745.45404336053
keywords = radiation-induced
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4/26. Isolated trigeminal neuropathy due to trigeminal nerve root hemorrhage.

    BACKGROUND: Isolated trigeminal neuropathy is uncommon; causes include trauma, inflammation, or neoplasm. methods: We report a patient who fell and struck his head during a myocardial infarction, was treated with streptokinase, and developed symptoms and signs of an isolated trigeminal sensory neuropathy. RESULTS: Imaging showed hemorrhage in the trigeminal nerve root; follow-up imaging showed resolution of the hemorrhage, but no underlying structural lesion. CONCLUSION: A combination of head trauma plus thrombolysis resulted in an isolated trigeminal neuropathy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = neoplasm
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5/26. Leptomeningeal glioblastoma presenting with multiple cranial neuropathies and confusion.

    glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the commonest primary malignant neoplasm of the CNS. Usually, patients present with seizures and headache but in the elderly, confusion and generalised cognitive decline are more frequently the initial features. Multiple cranial nerve lesions as a manifestation of leptomeningeal meningitis is a rare presentation of GBM. The diagnosis is not often suggestive on either brain computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and is usually confirmed by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology or histology. We describe the case of an 80-year-old man, who presented with multiple cranial nerve palsies and confusion secondary to leptomeningeal gliomatosis, in whom GBM was detected along the intra-ventricular lining of the left lateral ventricle at ventriculoscopy, in the absence of a distinct parenchymal lesion.
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ranking = 1
keywords = neoplasm
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6/26. Aspergillus parasellar abscess mimicking radiation-induced neuropathy. Case report.

    BACKGROUND: Transsphenoidal surgery is a safe procedure for treatment of pituitary adenomas. However, several complications, including post-surgical infection, are known. We describe a case of Aspergillus parasellar abscess that presented with cranial neuropathies following transsphenoidal surgery and radiosurgery. We initially diagnosed the case as radiation-induced neuropathies, which delayed the detection of Aspergillus. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 55-year-old man underwent transsphenoidal surgery for a pituitary adenoma that presented with pituitary apoplexy. dexamethasone had been continuously administered for hypocortisolism probably caused by pituitary apoplexy. Four years later, radiosurgery was performed for a relapse in the right cavernous sinus. Another 4 years later, he developed painful right ophthalmoplegia, right ptosis, and bilateral visual impairment, successively. We initially suspected that the painful ophthalmoplegia and ptosis were because of radiation-induced cranial neuropathies; however, results of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and his clinical course were not consistent with those of radiation-induced neuropathies. Therefore, we performed exploratory surgery that revealed a subdural abscess on the planum sphenoidale. culture of a specimen grew aspergillus fumigatus. CONCLUSION: Intracranial fungal abscess is a fatal complication unless it is treated early. It is thus important to consider the possibility of parasellar infection and differentiate it from radiation-induced cranial neuropathies when a patient presents with cranial neuropathies after transsphenoidal surgery and radiosurgery.
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ranking = 5963.6323468843
keywords = radiation-induced
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7/26. A clinicopathological study of a patient with anti-Hu-associated paraneoplastic sensory neuronopathy with multiple cranial nerve palsies.

    Only a few cases of paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome with multiple cranial palsies have been reported. This is the case report of a patient with small-cell lung cancer and a high titer of anti-Hu antibodies who developed a tonic left pupil and multiple cranial nerve palsies, including palsies of the left fifth through tenth nerves and both twelfth nerves, as in Garcin syndrome showing at least more than seven ipsilateral cranial nerve palsies, in the course of paraneoplastic sensory neuronopathy (PSN). Pathologic examination revealed no metastasis or direct invasion of malignancy with gliosis and perivascular inflammation throughout the brainstem, indicating paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis (PEM). The numbers of EBM11 cells (probably reactive microglia), CD8 cells, and CD4 cells increased. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and lymphocyte function associated molecule-1 were expressed intensely on the endothelia of microvessels and were found to have infiltrated mononuclear cells around microvessels in the brainstem. Multiple cranial nerve palsies and their effects including the tonic pupil are likely due to the paraneoplastic effect of the primary systemic malignancy.
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ranking = 2.3449730147912
keywords = cancer
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8/26. Standard and novel radiotherapeutic approaches to neoplastic meningitis.

    Neoplastic meningitis usually occurs late in the natural history of cancer. Adequate staging and assessment of the patient's overall reserves and prognosis are crucial in determining whether aggressive treatment is justified. Although radiotherapy remains the single most effective treatment, it is considered palliative for epithelial cancers and is generally directed to sites of bulky disease that obstruct the flow of cerebrospinal fluid or cause neurologic dysfunction. Such diseases as leukemia, medulloblastoma, and germinoma are exceptions that can be treated definitively with craniospinal irradiation. Innovations in conformal therapy may help to reduce the significant amount of myelosuppression associated with spinal irradiation. The main long-term toxicity associated with whole-brain irradiation (WBI) is dementia resulting from leukoencephalopathy, which may be exacerbated when WBI is given in combination with chemotherapy. A case report highlighting the use of radiotherapy for palliation in a patient with neoplastic meningitis is presented at the end of this article.
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ranking = 4.6899460295824
keywords = cancer
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9/26. Sixth nerve palsy as the initial presenting sign of metastatic prostate cancer. A case report and review of the literature.

    Cranial nerve palsies secondary to metastatic prostate cancer are uncommon occurrences. Usually appearing late in the course of the disease, they are associated with a poor prognosis. We report a case of a 71-year-old man who initially complained of diplopia and was found to have a right sixth nerve palsy and hyperdeviation caused by a mass in the clivus. biopsy of the mass and extensive systemic workup revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland.
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ranking = 11.724865073956
keywords = cancer
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10/26. Mental neuropathy (numb chin syndrome). A harbinger of tumor progression or relapse.

    The authors report four patients whose initial symptom of tumor recurrence or progression was unilateral numbness of the chin. Two patients had Hodgkin lymphoma, one had malignant melanoma, and one had prostate cancer. physical examination was notable only for unilateral anesthesia of the chin and lower lip. Diagnostic evaluation, including computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, plain radiographs of the mandible, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis for protein, glucose, and cytology were normal. Bone scans revealed osseous lesions in the axial skeleton of all patients, whereas only two patients had abnormal uptake in the mandible. The authors conclude that in the setting of a negative evaluation for central nervous system (CNS) or local mandibular disease, mental neuropathy is associated with recurrent or progressive skeletal disease. In addition, to document relapsed or progressive cancer, the skeletal system may have to be examined at sites distant from the mandible.
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ranking = 4.6899460295824
keywords = cancer
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