Cases reported "Cranial Nerve Injuries"

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21/28. Bitemporal compression injury caused by static loading mechanism. Report of two cases.

    The authors report two cases of bitemporal compression injury caused by a static loading mechanism. These head injuries resulted from gradual bitemporal compression of the head. Plain skull films showed multiple skull fractures, and carotid angiography revealed internal carotid artery obstruction at the base of the skull. Neurological examination disclosed a slight disturbance of consciousness, hemiparesis, multiple cranial nerve injuries, and Horner's syndrome. In comparison with impact head injury, the energy from this type of trauma tends to be transmitted to the foramina and hiati of the middle cranial fossa and results in multiple injuries to the cranial nerves, sympathetic nerves, and blood vessels.
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22/28. Cranial nerve injury from halo traction.

    Six of the 70 patients treated with skeletal traction at the Alfred I. duPont Institute exhibited cranial nerve complications. The sixth cranial nerve was most commonly affected by distraction and resulted in weakness in lateral gaze. A combined lesion of the ninth, tenth and twelfth nerves was not an infrequent complication and presented as abnormalities in swallowing, quality of speech, and of tongue movement. It has not been singled out for its significance in the literature but it is potentially the most lethal of the complications. From our review it appears that patients who have had radiation treatment and who have presented with myelomeningocele experience a higher risk of complication in cranial skeletal traction. A definite clinical-pathological correlation could not be made. Frequent monitoring of the patients in skeletal traction is necessary, and prompt recognition of the clinical signs of these complications must be stressed. The complications in the patients of our series subsided upon release of the distraction force.
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23/28. Neuro-ophthalmic complications of intracranial catheters.

    We report four patients who sustained direct injury to the brain after insertion of intraventricular shunts and pressure monitoring lines, which resulted in permanent neuro-ophthalmic deficits. These included hemianopsia from an optic tract lesion, esotropia and residual bilateral facial paresis from dorsal pontine injury, unilateral blindness from damage to the optic nerve, and dorsal midbrain syndrome from catheter compression in the region of the posterior commissure. Although presumably rare, such injuries should be considered in diagnosing patients with neuro-ophthalmic complaints after insertion of such devices.
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24/28. Cranial nerve injuring during carotid endarterectomy.

    Injury to the greater auricular, hypoglossal and superior laryngeal nerves during carotid endarterectomy is preventable. A knowledge of regional anatomy and the mechanisms of such injury allows prevention of this complication. Unilateral individual nerve injury is generally well tolerated, but bilateral or combined nerve injuries can pose a serious threat to life. Minor modifications in technique aid greatly in avoiding nerve injury.
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25/28. Intraoperative protection of cranial nerves and arteries by split silicone tube.

    The authors describe the usefulness of split silicone tubing to protect the cranial nerves and arteries during microneurosurgery. The inner diameter of the tube varied from 1.0 to 3.3 mm with a thickness of 0.125 mm. Application of the tube protects the nerves and arteries from mechanical trauma, electrical injury, and dryness.
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26/28. Traumatic atlantooccipital dislocation. Case report.

    A case of traumatic atlantooccipital dislocation is presented and the literature reviewed. This type of traumatic dislocation is probably produced by violent hyperextension of the upper cervical spine. cranial nerve injuries and spinal cord injuries are common. Early fusion is recommended.
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27/28. Delayed radiation-induced bulbar palsy.

    We report a man with a slowly progressive bulbar palsy 14 years after radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. electromyography demonstrated prominent myokymic and neuromyotonic discharges in muscles innervated by the lower cranial nerves. Late effects of radiation therapy can occur in the cranial nerve musculature that are similar to well-recognized syndromes affecting the brachial plexus and spinal cord.
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28/28. Cranial nerve II-VII injuries in fatal closed head trauma.

    PURPOSE: To study the distribution and mechanism of traumatic injuries to the nerves supplying the eye and muscles protecting the visual apparatus. methods: brain autopsy was carried out in 12 consecutive patients who died within three days after closed head injury. A segment of the brainstem with the entire intracranial portion of nerves II-VII was dissected out in each case and fixed in formalin. The specimens were stripped of the leptomeninges and inspected thoroughly under magnification. RESULTS: Injuries to the nerves were seen in nine subjects. The oculomotor nerve was completely torn off from the midbrain unilaterally in three and bilaterally in two cases. In one patient only a portion of the superficial fibres on the medial aspect of the nerve was ripped out from the brainstem. In two patients the fourth nerve was ruptured. The root of the fifth cranial nerve was contused and the fibres between the brainstem and Gasserian ganglion crushed and separated in one case. Bilateral avulsion of the root of the sixth nerve from the brainstem was found in two cases. The initial segment of the facial nerve was crushed in two subjects. No visible injury to the optic nerves was found. CONCLUSIONS: cranial nerves related to the visual system are subject to serious injury in a large proportion of cases of severe head trauma resulting from automobile accidents. In the majority of cases damage results from ripping the roots of these nerves out of the brainstem.
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