Cases reported "Cranial Nerve Neoplasms"

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11/68. A primary glomus tumour of the facial nerve canal.

    Glomus tumours can present in several sites in the head and neck. A red mass in the middle ear, visible on otoscopy generally indicates a glomus tympanicum or glomus jugulare. We present photographic and radiologic evidence of such a lesion arising from the course of the intra-tympanic facial nerve, the Fallopian canal, and review the differential diagnoses.
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12/68. A case of multiple schwannomas of the trigeminal nerves, acoustic nerves, lower cranial nerves, brachial plexuses and spinal canal: schwannomatosis or neurofibromatosis?

    In most cases, while schwannoma is sporadically manifested as a single benign neoplasm, the presence of multiple schwannomas in one patient is usually indicative of neurofibromatosis 2. However, several recent reports have suggested that schwannomatosis itself may also be a distinct clinical entity. This study examines an extremely rare case of probable schwannomatosis associated with intracranial, intraspinal and peripheral involvements. A 63-year-old woman presented with a seven-year history of palpable lumps on both sides of the supraclavicular area and hearing impairment in both ears. On physical examination, no skin manifestations were evident. Facial sensory change, deafness in the left ear and decreased gag reflex were revealed by neurological examination. magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple lesions of the trigeminal nerves, acoustic nerves, lower cranial nerves, spinal accessory nerve, brachial plexuses, and spinal nerves. Pathological examination of tumors from the bilateral brachial plexuses, the spinal nerve in the T8 spinal position and the neck mass revealed benign schwannomas. Following is this patient case report of multiple schwannomas presenting with no skin manifestations of neurofibromatosis.
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13/68. denervation atrophy of the masticatory muscles in a patient with nasopharyngeal cancer: MR examinations before and after radiotherapy.

    We report on a patient with denervation atrophy of the masticatory muscles due to nasopharyngeal cancer who received therapeutic irradiation. magnetic resonance imaging has significantly contributed to aid diagnosis of this pathology. Masticatory muscle atrophy should be a definitive finding of perineural invasion caused by head and neck tumors. Radiologists should be familiar with this appearance to avoid confusion with tumor invasion of the muscle.
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14/68. Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the vagus nerve.

    Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma is a rare, aggressive, malignant neoplasm, which arises from extraskeletal sites in 30-40 per cent of cases. It is extremely rare in children. We present a novel case of childhood mesenchymal chondsarcoma arising from the vagus nerve in the neck, resulting in paralysis of the right vocal fold. The clinicopathologic features and management of this case are described along with a brief discussion on the aetiology of vocal fold paralysis in this age group. Current literature on extraskeletal presentation of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma is reviewed.
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15/68. Rare localization of paraganglioma in head and neck.

    In this paper, we describe the clinical course of a 61-year-old female patient with paraganglioma in the head and neck region. Computed tomographic scan (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound scan (US) and arteriogram findings initially led us to suspect that this tumor originated in the vagal nerve. In particular, a color Doppler US enabled an easy diagnosis of hypervascular tumor. We removed this surgically, but the tumor was easy to peel from the vagal nerve and carotid bifurcation. The distal side of the tumor was under the digastric muscle and running into the hypoglossal nerve. The intraoperative findings were highly suggestive of localization at the hypoglossal nerve, although Xth and XIIth cranial nerve palsies have remained.
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16/68. Hypoglossal neurinoma presenting with intratumoral hemorrhage.

    Focal or microscopic hemorrhage in a neurinoma is common, but tumor origin from the hypoglossal nerve and extensive symptomatic intratumoral hemorrhage are both rare. A 59-year-old male presented with severe neck pain, nausea and vomiting of 1-day duration, accompanied by right hypoglossal nerve palsy. neuroimaging disclosed a tumor located in the right cerebellomedullary fissure and containing a hematoma. The right hypoglossal canal was slightly dilated. The intracranial tumor was resected via a suboccipital approach. Histological examination demonstrated spindle-shaped tumor cells with nuclear palisading and also relative hypervascularity with hyaline degeneration of the vessels. Extensive hemorrhage was present, as was necrosis. Thickening and hyalinization of arterial walls, a common occurrence in neurinomas, may have contributed to symptomatic intratumoral hemorrhage.
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17/68. Multiple paragangliomas of the head and neck.

    Multiple paragangliomas of the head and neck are rare conditions. The incidence of multiple paragangliomas is reported to the approximately 10% of the total patients, but in familial cases it increases up to 35-50%. In the head and neck region, the most common association is represented by bilateral carotid body tumors or by carotid body tumor associated with tympanic-jugular glomus. The presence of three synchronous glomus tumors is really rare, as well as association with vagal glomus and carotid body. In this paper the authors present a patient affected ipsilaterally by a carotid body tumor and vagal paraganglioma, focusing on the diagnostic options offered by imaging techniques (CT and MRI).
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18/68. Benign solitary nerve sheath tumors of the spinal accessory nerve in the posterior triangle of the neck. Report of two cases.

    A case of solitary schwannoma and one of solitary neurofibroma originating from the spinal accessory nerve in the posterior triangle of the neck are described. Location of such neoplasms in this region is exceptional. The authors emphasize the importance of accurately enucleating the mass; when it is impossible to preserve the continuity of the neural pathway, nerve repair should be considered.
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19/68. The value of flow cytometric analysis in multicentric glomus tumors of the head and neck.

    Glomus tumors of the head and neck include those arising from the carotid body, jugular vein, and vagus nerve. Because these cannot be differentiated histologically, when encountering a large tumor mass involving more than one structure in the carotid sheath, one often cannot be sure whether the tumors are from one or more of these structures. The authors performed dna flow cytometric analysis on a patient with a multicentric glomus tumor on the right side of the neck involving the carotid body, jugular vein, and vagus nerve, in an effort to determine the separate or similar origin of her tumor mass. Different dna indices, including a double peak for the carotid body tumor, were obtained. There were three aneuploid tumors and one diploid tumor (dna indices: carotid body 1.78, 2.04; jugular vein 2.20; vagus nerve 1.82). Different synthetic phase fractions were calculated for each aneuploid tumor except the second carotid body peak (carotid body 7.2; jugular vein 3.6; vagus nerve 4.8). The authors conclude that dna flow cytometry may be useful in confirming the multicentric origin of tumors that encompass more than one histologically similar structure.
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20/68. Multiple glomus tumours.

    A patient with multiple, synchronous, non-familial head and neck paragangliomas is reported. There were three primary neoplasms, a glomus tympanicum and glomus vagale on the right side and a glomus tumour of the carotid body on the left. Such a combination has never been reported previously. The reports of all the series with paragangliomas in the literature, as well as the reports of single cases with multiple tumours during the last three decades, are reviewed. Specific problems in diagnosis and management of multiple glomus tumours are discussed.
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