Cases reported "Cranial Nerve Neoplasms"

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1/201. Case report and discussion of hearing preservation after translabyrinthine excision of small acoustic tumors.

    OBJECTIVE: Since 1991, three separate reports have shown how hearing may be salvaged after translabyrinthine excision of small acoustic tumors. The authors submit yet another report of a complete translabyrinthine excision of a 1.4-cm intracanalicular acoustic tumor with modest hearing preservation. An attempt is made to retrace the steps of the operation and recognize and discuss what particular events may have safeguarded the viability of the cochlea. With the availability of cochlear implantation, there should be added incentive to preserve the cochlear neurones if hair cells cannot be saved. STUDY DESIGN: The study design was a retrospective case review. SETTING: The study was conducted at a primary care hospital. INTERVENTION: Therapeutic and rehabilitative measures were performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hearing preservation was measured. CASE REPORT: A 55-year-old woman presented with a left-sided hearing loss and a 1.4-cm left acoustic tumor completely filling the internal auditory canal (speech reception threshold [SRT] 30 dB, discrimination [Pb] 28%). A successful translabyrinthine excision of the tumor was performed in November 1995. A 1-year postoperative audiogram showed a mixed hearing loss in the left ear with SRT 85 dB and Pb 0%. Average pure-tone threshold for 500 Hz, 1 kHz, and 3 kHz was 50 dB and aided SRT 40 dB with Pb 64%. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging confirmed complete excision of the tumor. CONCLUSION: An exceptional case of hearing preservation after translabyrinthine excision of a small acoustic tumor illustrates how it may be possible to preserve cochlear hair cells and neurones simultaneously in certain selected cases. A review of the surgical events shows the value of sealing the cochlear duct with bone wax, selectively removing the vestibular nerves with the tumor by sharp dissection, and safeguarding the meatal segment of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery by a limited dural incision.
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2/201. Primary lymphoma of Meckel's cave mimicking trigeminal schwannoma: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: We report the first case of primary lymphoma of Meckel's cave. The ability of a lymphoma to mimic a trigeminal schwannoma, both clinically and radiographically, resulted in misdiagnosis and flawed surgical strategy. We discuss the characteristics of a Meckel's cave lymphoma on magnetic resonance images, the predisposing medical conditions that should cause the neurosurgeon to add lymphoma to the normal differential diagnosis, and appropriate management strategies. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 40-year-old African-American woman presented with a 5-month history of progressive facial numbness and pain in all three divisions of the left trigeminal nerve. magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass in the left side of Meckel's cave, with extension into the lateral compartment of the cavernous sinus, without encasement of the internal carotid artery, through the foramen rotundum into the posterior aspect of the maxillary sinus, and through the foramen ovale into the pterygopalatine fossa. The diagnosis, based on clinical history and radiographic imaging, was schwannoma of Meckel's cave. The patient had a history of systemic lupus erythematosus that had been treated with intermittent steroid therapy. INTERVENTION: The surgical approach selected was a frontotemporal craniotomy with orbitozygomatic osteotomy and anterior petrosectomy. The lesion was totally excised, although the gross intraoperative appearance of the lesion was inconsistent with the preoperative diagnosis, and the pathological examination was unable to establish a histological diagnosis on the basis of frozen sections. Histological diagnosis was confirmed on permanent section after surgery as B-cell lymphoma. Evaluation for other primary sites produced negative results. The patient was then treated with cyclophosphamide (Cytotoxan; Bristol-Myers Oncology, Princeton, NJ), doxorubicin (Adriamycin; Pharmacia & Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI), vincristine, and prednisone chemotherapy every 3 weeks for six cycles and then by radiation therapy to the affected area. CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of lymphoma should be considered for lesions affecting Meckel's cave in high-risk immunocompromised patients. The presence of an apparent dural tail in an otherwise typical schwannoma is the distinguishing characteristic of a lymphoma. The absence of hyperostosis helps differentiate it from a meningioma. At this point, the preferred surgical strategy is biopsy for diagnosis and then radiotherapy and chemotherapy rather than major cranial base surgery for total resection.
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3/201. Delayed intracranial abscess after acoustic neuroma surgery: a report of two cases.

    OBJECTIVE: The use of antibiotics before and after surgery has made infectious complications of neurotologic surgery rare. The neurosurgical literature cites a rate of postoperative meningitis between 1% and 2% for "clean" cases and 1.5% to 2.5% for "clean contaminated" cases, such as cerebrospinal fluid contact with the middle ear or mastoid. Reports of infections after neurotologic procedures are rare in the otologic literature. In this report, two patients with brain abscess occurring in a delayed fashion after surgery are described. STUDY DESIGN: The study design was a retrospective chart review and case report. SETTING: The study was conducted at a tertiary referral center. RESULTS: Patient 1 underwent a suboccipital craniotomy for removal of an acoustic neuroma and had an uneventful postoperative recovery. Three months after surgery, he reported mild unsteadiness. Examination revealed mild ataxia, which led to repeat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a diagnosis of cerebellar abscess. Patient 2 underwent translabyrinthine removal of an acoustic neuroma complicated by postoperative pseudomonas aeruginosa meningitis, which responded promptly to intravenous antibiotics. Fifteen months after surgery, he visited a neurologist after having a seizure and was treated with anticonvulsants. After a second episode of seizure, imaging studies showed a temporal lobe abscess. CONCLUSIONS: The signs of intracranial abscess may be subtle and can occur weeks or months after surgery, requiring vigilance and a high index of suspicion for diagnosis. A change in postoperative symptoms after acoustic neuroma surgery should signal further investigation using MRI with gadolinium.
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4/201. Intra-operative localisation of skull base tumours. A case report using the ISG viewing wand in the management of trigeminal neuroma.

    Deep-seated skull base tumours provide as much a challenge to the surgeons' skills of localisation as to his technical abilities during the resection. These lesions are frequently inaccessible and lie adjacent to vital structures requiring extensive cerebral retraction for adequate exposure and direct visualisation. The ISG viewing wand is a newly developed image guidance system to aid direction of the operative approach and localisation of intracerebral pathology. We discuss its use in the management of a trigeminal neuroma.
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5/201. Cavernous angioma of the optic chiasm--case report.

    A 31-year-old female presented with cavernous angioma originating from the optic chiasm manifesting as sudden onset of right retroorbital pain and right visual disturbance. She had a psychomotor seizure 10 years ago. Cavernous angioma at the right basal ganglia had been partially removed at that time. After the operation, the patient had left hemiparesis, but gradually improved. Neurological examination revealed decreased right visual acuity, left homonymous hemianopsia, and left hemiparesis. magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mixed signal intensity mass at the right optic nerve to the optic chiasm with a low signal intensity rim on T2-weighted imaging, situated at the right basal ganglia where the cavernous angioma had been partially resected. Right frontotemporal craniotomy was performed by the pterional approach. A subpial hematoma was situated at the right optic nerve to the optic chiasm. The hematoma with an angiomatous component was completely resected from the surrounding structure. Histological examination of the specimens confirmed cavernous angioma. Postoperatively, her right visual acuity was slightly improved, but the visual field defect was unchanged. We emphasize the importance of correct diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging and subsequent resection for preserving and improving the visual function of patients with cavernous angiomas of the optic chiasm.
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6/201. Schwannoma of the oculomotor nerve: a case report with consideration of the surgical treatment.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Oculomotor schwannoma is extremely rare. We report a case of oculomotor schwannoma with consideration of its surgical management. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old woman with a history of chronic headache underwent a computed tomographic scan, which revealed a mass lesion in the right prepontine cistern. She had no neurological deficits at admission. INTERVENTION: The tumor originated from the right oculomotor nerve. It was subtotally removed, leaving a tiny part attached to the nerve. The nerve trunk was preserved. A pathological examination revealed a schwannoma. Transient right oculomotor nerve palsy occurred postoperatively, but it improved almost completely. CONCLUSION: The tumor in the present case was resected, preserving serviceable oculomotor function. However, among 16 patients reported in the literature, all but one developed or maintained severe postsurgical oculomotor nerve palsy. We conclude that surgical resection generally is not indicated for oculomotor schwannomas, excluding large tumors that cause intractable symptoms.
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7/201. Isolated metastases of adenocarcinoma in the bilateral internal auditory meatuses mimicking neurofibromatosis type 2--case report.

    A 56-year-old male with a history of lung cancer presented with isolated metastases of adenocarcinoma in the bilateral internal auditory meatuses (IAMs), mimicking the bilateral acoustic schwannomas of neurofibromatosis type 2, and manifesting as rapidly worsening tinnitus and bilateral hearing loss. magnetic resonance imaging showed small tumors in both IAMs with no sign of leptomeningeal metastasis. The preoperative diagnosis was neurofibromatosis type 2. Both tumors were removed and the histological diagnoses were adenocarcinoma. neuroimaging differentiation of a solitary metastatic IAM tumor from a benign tumor is difficult, although rapidly progressive eighth cranial nerve dysfunction suggests a malignant process. Metastases should be considered as a rare diagnostic possibility in a patient with small tumors in both IAMs.
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8/201. Intracanalicular schwannoma of the facial nerve: a manifestation of neurofibromatosis type 2.

    Primary facial nerve tumors, which are relatively uncommon, can present a diagnostic dilemma based on their location and variable pattern of symptoms. Of primary cranial nerve tumors, schwannomas of the facial nerve rank third in frequency after those of the eighth and fifth cranial nerves. We report an illustrative case of an intracanalicular schwannoma associated with several central nervous system tumors, consistent with neurofibromatosis type 2. Initially assumed to be an eighth cranial nerve tumor, the schwannoma was found intraoperatively to arise from the facial nerve. early diagnosis and treatment enabled excision of the tumor without sacrifice of the facial nerve. facial nerve schwannomas can resemble acoustic schwannomas in their clinical presentation. Only a heightened level of clinical vigilance will point to the correct diagnosis and result in an optimal therapeutic outcome for patients with these rare tumors.
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9/201. Intracanalicular meningioma.

    Intracanalicular meningiomas are extremely rare and difficult to differentiate from intracanalicular vestibular schwannomas. We report an unusual case of a posterior fossa meningioma in the proximal internal auditory canal that was originally diagnosed as a vestibular schwannoma due to its appearance on magnetic resonance imaging. However, closer inspection of the preoperative neuroimages revealed features inconsistent with vestibular schwannoma that suggested the possibility of other less common lesions.
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10/201. Primary intracranial malignant schwannoma of trigeminal nerve. A case report with review of the literature.

    The authors report a rare case of primary intracranial malignant schwannoma of the trigeminal nerve occuring in a 30-year-old woman without von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis (VRNF). The tumour arose from the intracranial part of the left trigeminal nerve, without skull base destruction. The tumour was partially removed operatively, followed by focal 50 Gy irradiation, but unfortunately the tumour showed rapid regrowth. A second operation was attempted, but she died of cerebral infarction soon after operation. Histologically, the original tumour was characterized by the presence of foci of extremely high cellularity, pleomorphism and mitosis in an otherwise typical benign schwannoma. Immunohistochemically, the tumour cells were positive for S-100 protein even in the atypical areas, suggesting the tumour to be of Schwann cell origin. However, the recurrent tumour was composed of undifferentiated spindle cells, which were negative for S-100 protein. Thus, it is possible to consider that the S-100 protein expression could reflect the degree of differentiation of schwann cells. Furthermore, the postoperative irradiation might have exacerbated the malignant progression in the present case.
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