Cases reported "Craniocerebral Trauma"

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1/221. Successful treatment of traumatic acute posterior fossa subdural hematoma: report of two cases.

    BACKGROUND: Acute traumatic subdural hematoma of the posterior cranial fossa after a closed-head injury, excluding those in newborns, is a very rare clinical event. Generally, the outcome is poor and the overall mortality rate is high. methods: Acute posttraumatic subdural hematomas of the posterior fossa associated with acute hydrocephalus in two patients were removed by standard suboccipital approach. Preoperatively, one patient was in a coma and the Glasgow coma Score was 9 in another. CT scans showed obliterated mesencephalic cisterns in both cases. In the former there was a complex posterior fossa lesion, i.e., combined subdural and intracerebellar hematoma. The surgical decompression was completed 3 and 11 hours after injury, respectively. Intraoperative tapping of the lateral ventricle through a burr hole in the occipital area was performed in the latter case. RESULTS: Both patients survived; one made a good recovery, (i.e., glasgow outcome scale 4 in a patient who was comatose on admission), the other did not do as well (GOS 3). CONCLUSIONS: Our experience justifies the policy of mandatory early operation in cases of traumatic acute subdural hematoma of the posterior fossa associated with poor neurologic condition, even in patients of advanced age. In patients with obliterated mesencephalic cisterns and/or complex posterior fossa lesions the same approach must be followed. These clinical and CT features are not necessarily predictors of a poor outcome.
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2/221. The role of cranial MRI in identifying patients suffering from child abuse and presenting with unexplained neurological findings.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the usefulness of cerebral MRI to detect possible child abuse in children with unexplained neurologic findings. METHOD: Between 1990 and 1997, 208 children were referred for suspected physical child abuse to the Child Protection Clinic of Ste-Justine Hospital, a tertiary care pediatric hospital. Among them, 39 children presented initially with neurological findings. For 27 of them, the CT Scan results prompted the diagnosis of child abuse. However, in 12 children, even if a CT-Scan was performed, the diagnosis and/or the mechanisms of the neurologic distress remained obscure. Investigation was completed with MRI study in those 12 cases. RESULTS: MRI findings were diagnostic for physical abuse in eight cases. A diagnosis of child abuse was made in two more cases by a combination of MRI and skeletal survey findings. In one case, MRI was suggestive but the diagnosis of child abuse could not be confirmed. One case was misinterpreted as normal. CONCLUSIONS: MRI is the test of choice to rule out child abuse when faced with a child presenting unexplained neurologic signs lasting for few days. The fact that MRI can better differentiate collections of different ages makes this imaging test particularly useful in identifying cases of child abuse. These results, however, always have to be integrated in a well conducted multidisciplinary clinical approach.
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ranking = 15.185286616109
keywords = cerebral
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3/221. Increased inspired oxygen concentration as a factor in improved brain tissue oxygenation and tissue lactate levels after severe human head injury.

    OBJECT: Early impairment of cerebral blood flow in patients with severe head injury correlates with poor brain tissue O2 delivery and may be an important cause of ischemic brain damage. The purpose of this study was to measure cerebral tissue PO2, lactate, and glucose in patients after severe head injury to determine the effect of increased tissue O2 achieved by increasing the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2). methods: In addition to standard monitoring of intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure, the authors continuously measured brain tissue PO2, PCO2, pH, and temperature in 22 patients with severe head injury. microdialysis was performed to analyze lactate and glucose levels. In one cohort of 12 patients, the PaO2 was increased to 441 /-88 mm Hg over a period of 6 hours by raising the FiO2 from 35 /-5% to 100% in two stages. The results were analyzed and compared with the findings in a control cohort of 12 patients who received standard respiratory therapy (mean PaO2 136.4 /-22.1 mm Hg). The mean brain PO2 levels increased in the O2-treated patients up to 359 /-39% of the baseline level during the 6-hour FiO2 enhancement period, whereas the mean dialysate lactate levels decreased by 40% (p < 0.05). During this O2 enhancement period, glucose levels in brain tissue demonstrated a heterogeneous course. None of the monitored parameters in the control cohort showed significant variations during the entire observation period. CONCLUSIONS: Markedly elevated lactate levels in brain tissue are common after severe head injury. Increasing PaO2 to higher levels than necessary to saturate hemoglobin, as performed in the O2-treated cohort, appears to improve the O2 supply in brain tissue. During the early period after severe head injury, increased lactate levels in brain tissue were reduced by increasing FiO2. This may imply a shift to aerobic metabolism.
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ranking = 45.555859848328
keywords = cerebral
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4/221. The possible role of hypoxia in the formation of axonal bulbs.

    AIMS: To assess the possible role of hypoxia in the formation of axonal bulbs. methods: Study material comprised sections from 28 brains showing evidence of cerebral hypoxia with no history of head injury, four with a history of head trauma but no evidence of hypoxic change, eight with a history of head trauma and hypoxic change, and four from control brains originally described as "diffuse axonal injury." These were subjected to microwave antigen retrieval and immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies to beta amyloid precursor protein (beta APP), glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), and CD68-PGM1. RESULTS: Positive staining for beta APP was seen in all four controls, all four cases of head injury only, seven of eight cases of head injury and hypoxic changes, and 12 of 28 cases of hypoxia without history of head injury; 22 of 25 cases who had been ventilated showed positive staining. The majority of cases showed evidence of cerebral swelling. CONCLUSIONS: Axonal bulbs staining positively for beta APP may occur in the presence of hypoxia and in the absence of head injury. The role of hypoxia, raised intracranial pressure, oedema, shift effects, and ventilatory support in the formation of axonal bulbs is discussed. The presence of axonal bulbs cannot necessarily be attributed to shearing forces alone.
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ranking = 30.370573232219
keywords = cerebral
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5/221. Post-traumatic basilar artery thrombosis in a young man with atrial septum aneurysm and prothrombin gene G20210A polymorphism.

    prothrombin gene G20210A polymorphism has been recently identified as a cause of venous thrombosis. However the association between this mutation and arterial thrombosis remains uncertain. Some authors have suggested that the polymorphism in the 3' region of the prothrombin gene may precipitate cerebral arterial thrombosis in young patients with prothrombotic conditions. We report a case of post-traumatic basilar artery thrombosis in a young patient carrier of the prothrombin gene G20210A polymorphism. Thirty-six hours after sustaining a head injury in the occipital region, a young man developed vomiting, headache, dizziness and truncal ataxia, without signs of focal impairment. magnetic resonance imaging and selective angiography carried out 2 days later showed an obstruction of the basilar artery, with infarction of the right cerebellar region. A transthoracic echocardiogram showed a patent foramen ovale with little left-to-right shunt and an aneurysm of the interatrial septum. blood examination showed a heterozygous status for prothrombin gene G20210A polymorphism. We conclude that this prothrombin gene mutation and the coexisting particular head injury and interatrial septal aneurysm could have contributed simultaneously to the development of basilar artery occlusion and cerebellar infarction. We suggest that in selected cases of cerebellar ischemia a prothrombin gene G20210A polymorphism should be considered.
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ranking = 15.378361925481
keywords = cerebral, foramen
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6/221. Induced hypertension after head injury.

    The use of induced hypertension in head injury patients is controversial. We present the case of a 19-year-old man admitted with severe head trauma after a road accident and describe the beneficial effects that increasing arterial blood pressure had on the cerebral perfusion pressure, cerebral blood flow and jugular bulb oxygen saturation in this patient.
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ranking = 30.370573232219
keywords = cerebral
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7/221. Correlation between jugular bulb oxygen saturation and partial pressure of brain tissue oxygen during CO2 and O2 reactivity tests in severely head-injured patients.

    PURPOSE: To correlate the jugular bulb oxygen saturation (SjvO2) and brain tissue oxygen pressure (PbtO2) during carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) reactivity tests in severely head-injured patients. methods AND RESULTS: In nine patients (7 men, 2 women, age: 26 /- 6.5 years, GCS of 6.5 /- 2.9), a polarographic microcatheter (Clark-type) was inserted into nonlesioned white matter (frontal lobe). PbtO2 and SjvO2 were monitored simultaneously and cerebral vasoreactivity to CO2 and O2 was tested on days three, five and seven after injury. Simultaneous measurements of vasoreactivity by transcranial Doppler (TCD) were undertaken. A total of twenty-one CO2 and O2 reactivity tests were performed. Critical values of PbtO2 (< 15 mm Hg) during induced hyperventilation could be observed four times in two patients. High PbtO2 values up to 80 mm Hg were observed during hyperoxygenation (FiO2 100%). CO2 vasoreactivity by means of PbtO2 was absent in four tests in which measurements by TCD showed intact responses. A stronger correlation between SjvO2 and PbtO2 during the O2 reactivity tests was observed (r = 0.6, p < 0.001), in comparison to values obtained during the CO2 reactivity tests (r = 0.33, p < 0.001). In addition, there was no statistically significant correlation (r = 0.22, p = 0.26) between CO2 reactivity values measured by TCD (4.5 /- 5.7%) and PbtO2 (3 /- 2.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Correlation between SjvO2 and PbtO2 during CO2 reactivity test is low, even if significant differences between normo- and hyperventilation values are present. In comparison to SjvO2, monitoring of PbtO2 might more accurately detect possible focal ischaemic events during rapidly induced hyperventilation in severely head-injured patients. The CO2 vasoreactivity by means of changes in Vm MCA seems to be higher in comparison to changes of PbtO2. These observations lead to the hypothesis that vasoreactivity measured by TCD overestimates the cerebrovascular response to CO2.
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ranking = 15.185286616109
keywords = cerebral
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8/221. Fatal secondary increase in serum S-100B protein after severe head injury. Report of three cases.

    The S-100B protein is a small cytosolic protein that is found in astroglial or schwann cells. It is highly specific for brain tissue and is increasingly being investigated as a diagnostic tool to assess the neurological damage after head injury, stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and cardiopulmonary bypass. The authors report on three patients with severe head injury with otherwise normal cerebral perfusion pressure, SaO2, PaCO2, and controlled intracranial pressure (ICP), in whom a secondary excessive increase in serum S-100B was observed. In all cases, the S-100B increase was followed by an increase in ICP. All three patients died within 72 hours after the excessive increase in S-100B. These findings indicate that major secondary brain damage may occur at a cellular level without being identified by current neuromonitoring techniques.
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ranking = 15.185286616109
keywords = cerebral
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9/221. Penetrating head injuries caused by a new weapon, the side dome.

    The "side dome" is a mix of high and low explosives with a multitude of small metal balls molded within a specially designed half-sphere that directs the explosion wave and the projectiles in one direction to augment the harm. This weapon, originally designed by guerrilla and terrorist groups, is now used by regular armies. This report presents one craniocervical and eight cranial injuries caused by this new weapon and discusses the cases' various clinical features, the paucity of intracerebral cavitation damage along the missile track, the need for only minimally aggressive surgery, and the relatively favorable outcome. In all cases, the helmet offered good protection and the entry of the projectiles was just below its rim in an upward direction.
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ranking = 15.185286616109
keywords = cerebral
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10/221. Injury of the vertebral artery after closed head trauma.

    Two case reports characterized by the complete occlusion of the basilar artery, secondary to dissection of the vertebral artery after closed head trauma are described. These lesions, often clinically silent in the beginning, were able to cause severe neurologic impairment, even after minor head trauma in healthy individuals without predisposing structural disorders. Early detection, based upon the knowledge of the modality of the trauma and upon a correct diagnostic approach, is mandatory to reduce secondary injury. The authors suggest an extensive use of cerebral angiography or angio-magnetic resonance in all cases where clinical conditions are more severe than the computed tomography scan, particularly if the trauma produced a cervical injury with a movement of flexo-extension of the neck. Therapeutic management is discussed. Anti-coagulants, thrombolytic agents or surgical ligation of the vessel has been proposed to prevent the extension of the lesion and to improve the outcome.
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keywords = cerebral
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