Cases reported "Craniocerebral Trauma"

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21/157. Delayed presentation of post-traumatic aneurysm of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery in a patient with spinal cord injury.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case report. OBJECTIVE: To present and discuss the case of a patient with serious head and spinal injuries who suffered delayed haemorrhage from a post-traumatic aneurysm of the right posterior inferior cerebellar artery following surgical treatment of vertebral fracture and hydrocephalus. SETTING: National spinal injuries Unit and Institute of Neurological Sciences, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow, scotland, UK. methods: Clinical and radiological follow-up of the patient. RESULTS: The aneurysm was treated by coil occlusion of the right vertebral artery. Post-operative films showed that the aneurysm had been successfully obliterated. CONCLUSION: Post-traumatic cerebral aneurysms are very rare. Neurosurgical and rehabilitation teams need to be aware of this late treatable sequela of head injury.
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22/157. Posttraumatic aneurysm of the cervical segment of the internal carotid artery.

    Report of a case with double aneurysm of the cervical segment of the internal carotid artery in a 42 year old man. The initial injury, 24 years previously, had also caused a fracture of the mandible.
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23/157. February 2002: 29-year-old woman with a skull mass for 2 months.

    A 29-year-old woman had a 2-month history of an enlarging lesion over her left frontal bone following minor trauma. CT scan showed an osteolytic lesion with an overlying soft tissue mass, thought to be an unhealed skull fracture with pseudomeningocele. Left frontal craniotomy revealed a soft tissue mass, which was resected. Histologic examination revealed multinucleated giant cells mixed with Langerhan's cells that showed the characteristic "coffee bean nuclei." eosinophils were scant. Immunostaining for CD1a and S100 revealed strong positive staining primarily in the Langerhans' cells while giant cells and inflammatory cells were negative. Immunostaining for CD68, in contrast, stained the osteoclast-like giant cells and macrophages. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence Birbeck granules. The final diagnosis was Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (histiocytosis X) of the skull.
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24/157. Subdural haematoma and non-accidental head injury in children.

    patients AND methods: In this retrospective study, 36 children referred to paediatric neurology and neurosurgery during April 1995-June 1998 with a diagnosis of subdural haematoma (SDH) were studied. Nine were accidental secondary to witnessed trauma and 4 were iatrogenic. Non-accidental head injury (NAHI) was suspected in the remaining 23 children. RESULTS: After a full clinical, radiological and social assessment, NAHI was diagnosed in 14, lateral sinus thrombosis in 1, 2 were accepted as accidental and 6 remained unexplained. In the NAHI group (n=14), 12 were between 4 and 16 weeks of age, 12 (85%) had retinal haemorrhages and skeletal surveys showed evidence of additional injury in 8. Computerised tomography (CT) brain scans showed bilateral SDH in 11, and 6 had inter-hemispheric bleeding along with loss of grey-white differentiation. Eleven had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which yielded additional information in 7. Seven required intensive care, and 2 died. Twelve had surgical aspiration. In the group with no satisfactory explanation for SDH ( n=6); 5 had neonatal problems, all except 1 were older than 5 months of age and not as ill with bilateral, old SDH. All but 1 had skeletal surveys, which were normal, and eye examination showed no retinal haemorrhages. A social services enquiry was non-contributory. CONCLUSIONS: SDH is frequently traumatic whether accidental or non-accidental. SDH due to NAHI tends to present before 4 months of age with an inconsistent history; the patients are more seriously ill and have other findings, such as fractures and retinal haemorrhages. A small subgroup of patients was identified who had isolated, old SDH and in whom full investigation remained inconclusive. A consistent, comprehensive approach needs to be maintained in all cases with the essential backup of detailed neuro-imaging including MRI.
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25/157. Post-traumatic intradiploic leptomeningeal fistula and cyst.

    A 59 year old female patient presented with ataxia and difficulty in walking. The neurological examination revealed right homonymous hemianopia and ataxia. Radiographic evaluation revealed a large occipital intradiploic cyst mainly in the left suboccipital area. There was also moderate hydrocephalus and encephalomalacia of the left occipital pole. Bone window studies also demonstrated a growing fracture extending from the upper pole of the cyst to the vertex. Both pathologies were attributed to child abuse the patient suffered when she was a child. At first surgery, decompression of the cerebellum was followed by duroplasty and acrylic cranioplasty to the posterior cranial fossa. A month later, a shunt had to be inserted for hydrocephalus. At 7 months postoperatively, the patient is well and free of any symptoms or recurrence.
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26/157. Bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia and clivus fracture following head injury: case report.

    Internuclear ophthalmoplegia is a remarkable finding, particularly in patients victims of head injury. The medial longitudinal fasciculus, which is believed to be lesioned in cases of internuclear ophthalmoplegia, has an unique brain stem position and the mechanism involved in brain stem contusions implies a maximal intensity of shearing forces on the skull base. We describe a very rare association of bilateral ophthalmoplegia and clivus fracture following head injury, without further neurological signs. The patient history, his physical examination and the image investigation provide additional evidence to some of the mechanisms of injury proposed to explain post-traumatic internuclear ophthalmoplegia.
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ranking = 5
keywords = fracture
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27/157. Pneumatization of the intraorbital optic nerve after severe head trauma.

    Radiological evidence of pneumatization of the intraorbital optic nerve sheath following severe head trauma in an adult is reported. A young man was admitted to the emergency department following a high-speed motorcycle accident with unconsciousness, forehead laceration, and multiple fractures of the skull and extremities. On admission, the pupils were dilated and fixed. Computed tomography revealed right subdural hematoma with midline shift, brain stem hemorrhage, contusion of the left temporal lobe, multiple facial bone fractures, cerebral edema with intracerebral air, and meningeal pneumatization of the optic nerve sheaths bilaterally. This case demonstrates that after severe head trauma, air may extend in the optic nerve sheath, which could be a marker of severe optic nerve injury.
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28/157. Traumatic middle meningeal artery pseudoaneurysm and subsequent fistula formation with the cavernous sinus: case report.

    BACKGROUND: A combination of pseudoaneurysm and arteriovenous fistula of the middle meningeal artery is rare. We describe a case of traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the middle meningeal artery, which subsequently formed a fistula with the cavernous sinus. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 23-year-old man suffered from blunt head trauma and skull fractures. Sixteen days later, he suddenly experienced headache and a bruit was auscultated over the left ear. Three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography revealed dilatation of the left middle meningeal artery. The dilation proved to be a pseudoaneurysm on cerebral angiograms and it was also found to have formed a fistula with the cavernous sinus. Both lesions were successfully obliterated by endovascular embolization using microcoils. CONCLUSION: Head injury may lead to asymptomatic pseudoaneurysm or dural arteriovenous fistula. Neurosurgeons should always bear in mind the possibility of such vascular injuries after blunt head trauma to prevent any hemorrhagic complications.
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keywords = fracture
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29/157. Pulmonary air embolism in severe head injury.

    Entry of air into the venous system leading to intracardiac air and pulmonary air embolism (PAE) has been reported in various clinical settings such as neurosurgical interventions in the sitting position and in autopsies on patients with head and neck injuries. We report the case of a 29-year-old male who developed severe pulmonary dysfunction after severe head injury in a high-velocity car accident. Chest X-ray showed bilateral diffuse patchy infiltrates. pneumothorax, haemothorax, pulmonary aspiration, various forms of pulmonary oedema and pulmonary contusion could be excluded. Furthermore, there was an open laceration of the frontal sinus and maxillo-facial fractures. The history of spontaneous respiration in sitting position at the scene, rapid improvement of pulmonary function within 30 h, small amounts of air in the brain parenchyma, and circulatory shock despite elevated central venous pressure in the initial phase led to the diagnosis of PAE as the primary cause of pulmonary dysfunction. The diagnostic approach and basic therapeutical principles in patients with PAE are described. In conclusion, the case presented emphasizes the importance of considering PAE as a possible cause of respiratory failure in patients with severe head injury.
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30/157. Bilateral sixth nerve palsy after head trauma.

    Gaze deficits are not uncommon after head trauma and might be caused by injury to the central nervous system, the peripheral nerve, or the motor unit. Traumatic bilateral sixth cranial nerve palsies are a rare condition and are typically associated with additional intracranial, skull, and cervical spine injuries. We describe a case of a complete bilateral sixth nerve palsy in a 44-year-old male patient with trauma with no intracranial lesion, no associated skull or cervical spine fracture, and no altered level of consciousness. The emergency physician should be aware of the differential diagnosis, initial workup, and injuries associated with a traumatic gaze deficit.
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keywords = fracture
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