Cases reported "Craniocerebral Trauma"

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11/73. diagnosis and treatment of bilateral traumatic carotid-cavernous sinus fistulae.

    The authors report the diagnosis and successful treatment of a case of traumatic bilateral carotid-cavernous sinus fistula. Direct tamponade of the fistula with a Fogarty catheter and ligation of all cervical carotid vessels was carried out on the left side following ligation on the right side of the common carotid, the internal carotid extra- and intracranially, and of the external carotid artery. The pre-requisite for this procedure was the development of a functional collateral circulation via the posterior communicating arteries from the basilar system. The 18 months follow-up report and the rare reports in the world literature on the operative techniques and the results of treatment of similar cases are discussed.
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12/73. Post-traumatic intradiploic leptomeningeal fistula and cyst.

    A 59 year old female patient presented with ataxia and difficulty in walking. The neurological examination revealed right homonymous hemianopia and ataxia. Radiographic evaluation revealed a large occipital intradiploic cyst mainly in the left suboccipital area. There was also moderate hydrocephalus and encephalomalacia of the left occipital pole. Bone window studies also demonstrated a growing fracture extending from the upper pole of the cyst to the vertex. Both pathologies were attributed to child abuse the patient suffered when she was a child. At first surgery, decompression of the cerebellum was followed by duroplasty and acrylic cranioplasty to the posterior cranial fossa. A month later, a shunt had to be inserted for hydrocephalus. At 7 months postoperatively, the patient is well and free of any symptoms or recurrence.
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13/73. Arachnoid cyst is a risk factor for chronic subdural hematoma in juveniles: twelve cases of chronic subdural hematoma associated with arachnoid cyst.

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) tends to occur in elderly patients with a history of mild head injury at a few months prior to the onset of symptoms. Intracranial arachnoid cyst is believed to be congenital and sometimes becomes symptomatic in pediatric patients. These two distinct clinical entities sporadically occur in the same young patient. Twelve of 541 cases of CSDH surgically treated in our institution had associated arachnoid cyst. The clinical and radiological characteristics of the cases of CSDH associated with arachnoid cyst were retrospectively analyzed and compared with those of CSDH without arachnoid cyst. arachnoid cysts were located in the middle fossa (eight cases), convexity (two cases), and posterior fossa (two cases). Three cysts were less than 20 mm in diameter. The 12 patients with CSDH and arachnoid cyst (mean age 27.8 /- 19.7 years) were significantly younger (p < 0.001) than the patients with CSDH without arachnoid cyst (69.5 /- 13.7 years). Five of the 12 patients were pediatric cases (< 15 years old). The clinical symptoms were also significantly different. The most frequent symptom was headache followed by vomiting in the patients with arachnoid cyst, while gait disturbance and hemiparesis predominated in patients without arachnoid cyst. hematoma evacuation through burr holes improved the symptoms in all patients with arachnoid cyst. We conclude that even a small arachnoid cyst can be a risk factor for CSDH after mild head injury in young patients and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure are common. hematoma evacuation is adequate at first operation. If the preoperative symptoms persist, additional arachnoid cyst surgery should be considered. The present results also suggest that CSDH formation may be preceded by subdural hygroma caused by the rupture of arachnoid cyst.
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14/73. Greater omentum in reconstruction of refractory wounds.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of greater omentum in reconstruction of refractory wounds. methods: From August 1988 to May 2001, 20 patients with refractory wound underwent pedicle or microvascular free transfer of the greater omentum. Indications of surgery were electrical injury of the wrist and hand in 9 patients, electrical injury of the scalp and cranial bones in 3, avulsion injury of the scalp in 2, radiation-related ulcer of the chest wall in 2, ulcer and osteomyelitis following resection of the sternum sarcoma in 1, electrical injury of the abdomen in 1, bone and soft tissue defects following compound fracture of the leg in 1, and extensive scar and ulcer of the leg and footdrop following trauma in 1. Severe infection and extensive tissue necrosis were present prior to surgical operation in 12 patients. Eleven patients were treated with pedicled omental flaps, and 9 patients with free omental flaps. The size of the omental flaps ranged from 20 cm x 12 cm to 38 cm x 23 cm. RESULTS: All the omental flaps survived. Healing at the first intention of the wounds was achieved in 17 cases. The on-top skin grafts resulted in partial necrosis of lipid liquefaction developed in the omentum and healed with dressing change in 2 cases. A sinus tract of osteomyelitis occurred in one case and healed after delayed excision of the necrosed bone. Follow-up study of all cases from 3 to 24 months showed no recurrent wounds and post-operative abdominal complication. Recovery with acceptable appearance and restoration of function was satisfactory. CONCLUSIONS: Greater omentum provides a well-vascularized tissue with lymphatic ducts for wound coverage. It has strong resistance against infection. It is very malleable and can be molded easily. Therefore it is an ideal tissue in filling cavities and repairing defects, especially in covering large and irregular defects that can not be treated with skin or muscle flaps.
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15/73. ECG changes in pediatric patients with severe head injury.

    Although ECG changes in subarachnoid hemorrhage and head injury have been described in adults, they have been rarely reported in children. We present 3 pediatric head-injured patients who developed severe ischemic changes on ECG. Three children (ages 9 months, 2.5 years, and 12 years) were admitted with severe head injury. All of them developed progressive ST segment depression of 4 to 7 mm during the surgical procedure. The first case, a 9-month-old child, also had bradycardia and cardiac arrest following ST depression. He was promptly resuscitated with simultaneous evacuation of extradural hematoma. In the other two cases, ST depression also gradually came up to baseline coinciding with surgical treatment of main pathology. All of the patients were ventilated postoperatively for 36 to 48 hours and discharged with no neurologic deficit. ECG changes and myocardial ischemia in head-injured patients have been attributed to extreme sympathetic stimulation and raised intracranial pressure in adults. But there has been no such systematic study in children. From our observations, we can conclude that ECG changes do occur in children with head injury, although the exact mechanism awaits further evaluation.
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16/73. Atypical presentation of an extradural hematoma on the grounds of a temporal arachnoid cyst.

    We report a 56-year-old man, with atypical presentation of an extradural hematoma caused by head injury after a fall. The presence of a temporal arachnoid cyst on the grounds of temporal lobe agenesis altered the clinical image of this man, causing only mild symptoms where an otherwise acute neurologic deterioration would be expected in the case of an epidural hematoma of such extent. The hematoma was evacuated through a left pterional craniotomy and a tear in the middle meningeal vein was recognized as the source of bleeding. Postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged within 5 days. An extensive review of literature available to us revealed only 5 other such cases reported that all were younger patients.
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17/73. Atrial plasmacytoma and hypercalcemia.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a patient with hypercalcemia due to multiple myeloma and an associated atrial plasmacytoma. methods: A case report is presented with clinical and laboratory findings. We review the differential diagnosis of hypercalcemia and discuss multiple myeloma and plasmacytomas. RESULTS: A 48-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with lethargy after sustaining trauma to the head. She was found to have a subdural hematoma and a parietal intraparenchymal hemorrhage. She had a serum calcium level of 17.2 mg/dL (normal, 8.4 to 10.6), anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal insufficiency. serum protein electrophoresis revealed a monoclonal gammopathy, and a bone marrow biopsy specimen was consistent with multiple myeloma. The patient required surgical evacuation of her subdural hematoma. Postoperatively, multiple complications developed, including a supraventricular tachycardia. She did not regain consciousness, and ventilatory support was withdrawn. On autopsy, she was found to have disseminated myeloma and an atrial plasmacytoma. CONCLUSION: This case report emphasizes the need to consider a plasmacytoma as a manifestation of multiple myeloma when localizing symptoms are present.
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18/73. Traumatic perilymphatic fistula: how long can symptoms persist? A follow-up report.

    In the past 18 years 68 ears (average 3.8 per year) were explored for perilymphatic fistula (PLF). A total of nine (13%) ears had a fistula identified at operation. patients with a previous history of otologic surgery were excluded from this review. The most common etiology for PLF was head trauma (4 of 9). Most patients had persistent symptoms lasting months (average 6.7). Eighty-three percent of all patients had sudden or fluctuating hearing loss, 77 percent had vertigo or dysequilibrium, and 61 percent had tinnitus. vertigo was the most commonly improved symptom postoperatively, and only 25 percent of patients had improved hearing. There were no major complications. The authors discuss indications for operation, criteria for diagnosis of PLF, and audiometric and electronystagmographic findings. This report agrees with other recent data indicating that exploration for fistula is an uncommon procedure performed by otologists.
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19/73. Percutaneous puncture and pre-operative cyanoacrylate obliteration of a traumatic false aneurysm of an angular artery branch.

    We report a case of traumatic false aneurysm developed in the right glabella in a 5-year-old boy 3 weeks after an innocuous fall. Ultrasound, CT and facial arteriography did not reveal the feeding artery. After direct puncture of the glabellar bulge and rapid aspiration of blood, percutaneous contrast agent infusion revealed that the false aneurysm was supplied by the contralateral angular artery. Intralesional obliteration with cyanoacrylate was subsequently performed smoothly. Succeeding excision was easy and the cosmetic outcome was excellent.
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20/73. Reconstruction of traumatic Stensen duct defect using a vein graft as a conduit: two case reports.

    Treatment of Stensen duct defect is still controversial. The authors describe the successful use of a retrograde vein graft as a conduit for traumatic segmental Stensen duct defect reconstruction. One patient sustained facial trauma with severe duct crushing and severance, the other had multiple cutting injuries with segmental duct defect. However, primary repair was impossible. A retrograde vein graft harvested from forearm for Stensen duct defect reconstruction was performed using microsurgical technique. A silicon stent was retained for 8 weeks. The sialographic examination showed good functional results without stricture postoperatively. This could be an option for treating such a complicated defect.
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