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1/168. Diprosopus (partially duplicated head) associated with anencephaly: a case report.

    Craniofacial duplication (diprosopus) is a rare form of conjoined twin. A 16 year old mother with a twin pregnancy delivered one normally formed baby boy and one diprosopus male. The malformed baby was 33 weeks of gestation with a single trunk, normal limbs and various degrees of facial duplication. Of the following structures there were two of each: noses, eyes, ears (and one dimple), mouths, tongues and, with bilateral central cleft lips and cleft palates. This was associated with holoprosencephaly and craniorachischisis. Internal organs showed no duplication. There were multiple congenital anomalies including diaphragmatic hernia, small lungs, two lobes of the right lung, ventricular septal defect, small adrenal gland and small left kidney with short ureter. The body also had a short neck, small chest cavities and kyphosis. X-ray revealed duplication of the vertebral column. The case presented here represents a type II of diprosopia of Rating (1933) and is the least common type reported. We also reviewed 22 recently reported cases of diprosopus. In addition to facial duplication, anencephaly, neural tube defect and cardiac malformations represent the more common congenital abnormalities associated with diprosopus. The pathogenesis of diprosopus is not well understood. Factors that play a role in diprosopus are probably similar to those factors (genetic, environmental and abnormal placental circulation) which affect monozoygotic twins as observed in this case report. Early ultrasonography diagnosis of diprosopus permits one to consider a vaginal therapeutic abortion.
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2/168. Mutchinick syndrome in a Japanese girl.

    We report on a 7-year-old Japanese girl with Mutchinick syndrome, a rare congenital malformation syndrome described in a pair of Argentinean sisters and a pair of German brothers; both originating from the same geographic region in the former East prussia. The girl we describe had most of the clinical manifestations of the syndrome, including growth and developmental retardation, and craniofacial anomalies with microcephaly, hypertelorism, a broad straight nose, low-set malformed ears, and a wide, tented mouth. She also had the following hitherto undescribed manifestations: ventricular septal defect, palmoplantar hyperkeratosis, bilateral partial soft-tissue syndactyly of second and third toes, and megaloureters. The occurrence of the syndrome in a Japanese girl indicates that the syndrome is not restricted to the descendants of individuals from a confined region in northeastern europe.
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3/168. Fetal craniofacial structure and intracranial morphology in a case of Apert syndrome.

    Apert syndrome is characterized by craniosynostosis, midfacial hypoplasia and bilateral syndactyly. We document in detail the intrauterine natural history of Apert syndrome by serial sonographic examination. Ultrasound examination of a 19-week fetus revealed an abnormal appearance of the skull. The subsequent examination including transvaginal brain scanning demonstrated a deformed occipital part of the cerebrum and lateral ventricles, frontal bossing, a low nasal bridge and an abnormal appearance of the fetal hands and feet. The distortion of the fetal profile became progressively worse with advancing gestation. Towards the end of pregnancy, anterior prominence of the cerebrum, ventricles and corpus callosum was demonstrated and mild non-progressive ventriculomegaly was seen. The female 3152-g newborn with the typical facial appearance of Apert syndrome, bilateral syndactyly of the fingers and toes and isolated cleft palate was delivered at 37 weeks. Postnatal three-dimensional computed tomography scan demonstrated the fusion of the coronal suture and a wide mid-line calvarial defect, and cranial magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the prenatal sonographic findings. Although the karyotype was normal, genomic dna analysis of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 revealed Ser252Trp, which is specified in the mutational basis of Apert syndrome. The time course of the prenatal findings in this case may help increase understanding of the intrauterine natural history of Apert syndrome.
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4/168. A 100-year-old anatomical specimen presenting with boomerang-like skeletal dysplasia: diagnostic strategies and outcome.

    The Museum Vrolik collection of human anatomy comprises 360 recently redescribed specimens with congenital anomalies. The specimen described here dated from 1881 and presented with a general embryonic appearance, disproportionate short stature, brachycephaly, widened cranial sutures, hypertelorism, microphthalmia, bilateral cleft lip and palate, micrognathia, short and curved limbs, polysyndactyly, and abnormal female genitalia. Conventional radiography was hampered by decalcification of the skeleton, due to acidification of the preservation fluid. The use of additional imaging techniques, i.e., mammography, computerized tomography with three-dimensional reconstruction, and magnetic resonance imaging eventually led us to conclude that the condition of our specimen was similar to Piepkorn type skeletal dysplasia, boomerang dysplasia, and a condition described by Carpenter and Hunter [1982: J Med Genet 19:311-315], though none of these diagnoses seemed fully applicable.
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5/168. Facial anomalies in D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria.

    D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a rare autosomal recessive organic aciduria with variable clinical expression. The biochemical defect is still unknown, and genetic heterogeneity has been suggested. Here, we report on facial anomalies in two unrelated cases of D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria presenting with epileptic encephalopathy. In a review, we found that minor facial anomalies have been mentioned in three patients. A flat face with a broad nasal bridge and external ear anomalies were present in our patients and in reported cases. We suggest giving consideration to D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria as a cause of minor facial anomalies in epileptic encephalopathy of unknown origin.
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6/168. Duplication of 7p21.2-->pter due to maternal 7p;21q translocation: implications for critical segment assignment in the 7p duplication syndrome.

    We describe a 1-year-old boy with mental and physical retardation, a large anterior fontanel, brachycephaly with flat occiput, short and stubby fingers, generalized hypotonia, ocular hypertelorism, low-nasal bridge, long philtrum, high-narrow palate, apparently low-set ears, and a small mandible. cytogenetic analysis utilizing high resolution chromosome banding technique showed an unbalanced karyotype consisting of 46,XY,add(21)(q22.3) that originated from maternal balanced translocation between chromosomes 7 and 21. fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using micro-dissected library probe pool from chromosome 7 confirmed the additional material on 21q was derived from chromosome 7. Our results indicated that the patient had an unbalanced translocation, 46,XY, der(21)t(7;21)(p21.2;q22.3)mat, which resulted in duplication for distal 7p. Our patient is similar to reported cases with a 7p15-->pter or larger duplication of 7p, suggesting that the critical segment causing the characteristic phenotype of 7p duplication syndrome, including large anterior fontanel, exists at 7p21.2 or 7p21.2-->pter.
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7/168. rhabdomyosarcoma in a patient with cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome.

    A boy with characteristic facial features, pulmonary valvular stenosis, ectodermal abnormalities, growth failure, and mental retardation was admitted for intestinal occlusion at 20 months of age. Clinical findings were consistent with a diagnosis of cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC-s), and a huge abdominal mass was evident on computed tomography scan. A biopsy was performed, and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma was diagnosed. Molecular analysis was performed by reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on tumor rna to seek the chimerical transcript of the most common soft tissue sarcoma translocations and analyze neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) gene expression. Translocations involving 1;13, 2;13, and 11;22 were not found, and the specific transcripts of the NF1 gene were present. Chemotherapy was implemented, but the child died 7 months later of tumor progression. Few patients with CFC-s have been described, and their follow-up is not well known. The association of CFC-s with rhabdomyosarcoma has not been reported previously, but other neoplasms have been reported in patients with noonan syndrome, a condition similar to CFC-s. More observations are needed, but this and other reports suggest there could be a higher risk of malignancy in patients with syndromes in the Noonan phenotype category.
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8/168. Brachmann-de lange syndrome: a cause of early symmetric fetal growth delay.

    Brachmann-de lange syndrome is characterized by pre- and postnatal growth retardation, microbrachycephaly, hirsutism, various visceral and limb anomalies and a typical face. A sonographic prenatal diagnosis at mid-trimester is reported in a case of severe, symmetrical fetal growth delay at 20 weeks gestation, with a thickened skin on the forehead, a small nose and a marked depressed nasal bridge, a long philtrum, micrognathia and a persistently flexed right forearm, with a single bone associated to oligodactyly. Due to the severe mental impairment with a commonly estimated intelligence quotient under 60, the pregnancy was terminated after parental consent.
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9/168. A three generations family with blepharo-naso-facial malformations suggestive of Pashayan syndrome.

    Blepharo-naso-facial syndrome, described by Pashayan et al. (10), is characterized by telecanthus, lateral displacement and stenosis of lacrimal puncta, bulky nose, mask-like facies, trapezoidal upper lip, torsion dystonia and mental retardation. We report on a family with this rare malformation syndrome, confirming the existence of this syndrome and its dominant inheritance. The proband had a fleshy nose, a prominant nose bridge, an hypoplastic midface, telecanthus with temporal displacement of puncta, lacrimal excretory obstruction. CNS torsion dystonia, increased deep tendon reflexes, Babinski reflexes, poor coordination and joint laxity. The proband's mother, brother and maternal grandfather also showed manifestations of the syndrome. The proband and his brother had delayed developmental milestones. hearing impairment was present in the proband, his mother and his grandfather but was absent in the proband's brother. The blepharonasofacial syndrome was described by Pashayan et al. (10) in four members of one family, two male and one female sib and their mother. Two other sibs were unaffected. Many of the features of the blepharo-facio-nasal syndrome also occur in other well known syndromes i.e. waardenburg syndrome. The pedigrees of the family of Pashayan et al. (10) and of our family are compatible with Mendelian dominant inheritance, either autosomal or X-linked. X-linked dominant inheritance cannot be ruled out except by male-to-male transmission, which does not occur in these families. Pashayan et al. (10) suggested that an autosomal gene with variable expressivity appears more likely. More families are needed for defining the transmission of the condition and for mapping the gene involved in the blepharo-naso-facial syndrome.
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10/168. Apparent sotos syndrome (cerebral gigantism) in a child with trisomy 20p11.2-p12.1 mosaicism.

    We report on a child with apparent sotos syndrome (cerebral gigantism) and partial duplication of the short arm of chromosome 20 mosaicism. trisomy 20p11.2-p12.1 was diagnosed using cytogenetic and FISH studies. The somatostatin receptor 4 (SSTR4) gene is included in the duplicated segment. This suggests that a dosage effect of this gene might be related to some of the clinical findings observed in our patient. The present observation emphasizes the importance of chromosome analysis in patients with well-delineated but sporadic conditions.
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