Cases reported "Craniopharyngioma"

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1/82. craniopharyngioma of the pineal region.

    Craniopharyngiomas generally develop either in the suprasellar region or in both suprasellar and intrasellar regions. We report on a nontypical location of the craniopharyngioma in the pineal region. An 8-year-old boy was admitted to the department of pediatric neurosurgery in a grave condition. An MRI scan of the brain was performed after the neurological examination and revealed a large neoplasm situated in the posterior part of the III ventricle and in the pineal region, measuring 8.5x6.5x5 cm. The size of the tumor and its location meant it was occluding three ventricles, with subsequent hydrocephaly. Total removal of the tumor was carried out. Microscopic investigation of the tissue removed showed the typical structure characteristic for craniopharyngioma of the adamantinomatous type. Results of a consultation 6 months after the operation revealed that the patient was feeling well, attending school regularly and had finished the first semester with excellent results. On control MRI scan no tumor was found.
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2/82. Recovery from anterograde and retrograde amnesia after percutaneous drainage of a cystic craniopharyngioma.

    A case is reported of a cystic craniopharyngioma involving the floor and walls of the third ventricle. Pronounced anterograde and retrograde amnesia were documented preoperatively by formal testing. Rapid improvement in both new learning capacity and remote memory occurred after percutaneous twist drill drainage of the cystic portion of the tumour. The relevance of these observations to the amnesic syndrome and its neuropathological basis is discussed.
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3/82. The bifrontal olfactory nerve-sparing approach to lesions of the suprasellar region in children.

    Suprasellar masses in children include lesions such as craniopharyngiomas and germ cell neoplasms. The difficult location of these lesions and their proximity to important neural and vascular structures pose challenges to resection. We operated on 14 patients using a bifrontal craniotomy with removal of both orbital rims to provide access to suprasellar masses, even those with significant extension into the third ventricle. A complete resection was possible in 8/14 patients and 8/10 craniopharyngiomas. In 13 patients, the optic nerves were identified and preserved, and vision was stable or improved postoperatively. Postoperatively, 1 patient with hydrocephalus developed a CSF leak which was successfully treated with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. No patient had a cosmetic defect related to orbital rim removal. The bifrontal approach used here enhanced the exposure of the suprasellar region and minimized manipulation of the optic apparatus and the carotid arteries. It may be used alone, or in conjunction with other approaches, to resect lesions in the suprasellar region.
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4/82. Atypical Rathke's cleft cyst associated with ossification.

    We report a case of symptomatic Rathke's cleft cyst with ossification. CT scans showed curvilinear calcification on the wall of the cyst. MR images revealed a cystic sellar lesion with a nodular solid mass extending to the floor of the third ventricle. This case shows that calcification of the suprasellar cyst does not always suggest craniopharyngioma. Rathke's cysts should be histologically differentiated from craniopharyngiomas because their treatments are different.
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5/82. Intracerebral hemorrhage due to nosocomial aspergillosis following neurosurgery.

    A unique case of nosocomial aspergillosis following neurosurgery in a 10 year old girl was documented. She presented with intracerebral hemorrhage after three weeks of operation for evacuation of craniopharyngioma. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of intracerebral hemorrhage due to nosocomial aspergillosis following neurosurgery.
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keywords = cerebral
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6/82. Resection of suprasellar tumors by using a modified transsphenoidal approach. Report of four cases.

    Generally accepted contraindications to using a transsphenoidal approach for resection of tumors that arise in or extend into the suprasellar region include a normal-sized sella turcica, normal pituitary function, and adherence of tumor to vital intracranial structures. Thus, the transsphenoidal approach has traditionally been restricted to the removal of tumors involving the pituitary fossa and, occasionally, to suprasellar extensions of such tumors if the sella is enlarged. However, conventional transcranial approaches to the suprasellar region require significant brain retraction and offer limited visualization of contralateral tumor extension and the interface between the tumor and adjacent structures, such as the hypothalamus, third ventricle, optic apparatus, and major arteries. In this paper the authors describe successful removal of suprasellar tumors by using a modified transsphenoidal approach that circumvents some of the traditional contraindications to transsphenoidal surgery, while avoiding some of the disadvantages of transcranial surgery. Four patients harbored tumors (two craniopharyngiomas and two hemangioblastomas) that arose in the suprasellar region and were located either entirely (three patients) or primarily (one patient) within the suprasellar space. All patients had a normal-sized sella turcica. Preoperatively, three of the four patients had significant endocrinological deficits signifying involvement of the hypothalamus, pituitary stalk, or pituitary gland. Two patients exhibited preoperative visual field defects. For tumor excision, a recently described modification of the traditional transsphenoidal approach was used. Using this modification, one removes the posterior portion of the planum sphenoidale, allowing access to the suprasellar region. Total resection of tumor was achieved (including absence of residual tumor on follow-up imaging) in three of the four patients. In the remaining patient, total removal was not possible because of adherence of tumor to the hypothalamus and midbrain. One postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak occurred. Postoperative endocrinological function was worse than preoperative function in one patient. No other new postoperative endocrinological or neurological deficits were encountered. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a modified transsphenoidal approach for resection of certain suprasellar, nonpituitary tumors.
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7/82. Spontaneous intraventricular rupture of craniopharyngioma cyst.

    BACKGROUND: rupture of a cystic craniopharyngioma is a rare phenomenon. The rupture of the cyst causes decompression of the adjacent neural structures resulting in spontaneous improvement of the visual symptoms or level of sensorium. The leakage of its contents into the subarachnoid space gives rise to meningismus. We report an extremely rare phenomenon of an intraventricular rupture of a cystic craniopharyngioma, which resulted in acute neurological deterioration and chemical ventriculitis. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 38-year-old lady presented with a 1-year history of frontal lobe dysfunction and bilateral primary optic atrophy. The CT scan showed a multi-loculated, hyperdense lesion in the region of the third ventricle and suprasellar cistern. She suffered acute deterioration of neurological status; computed tomography (CT) scan showed a hypodense lesion in the suprasellar cistern with persistent hydrocephalus. She was treated with ventricular drainage, steroids and anticonvulsants. Ventricular fluid showed high cholesterol and LDH levels. The diagnosis of craniopharyngioma was subsequently verified histologically. CONCLUSIONS The intraventricular rupture of a cystic craniopharyngioma can result in acute clinical deterioration and morbidity because of chemical ventriculitis. This is unlike the rupture in the subarachnoid space or sphenoid sinus which usually results in symptomatic improvement, although chemical meningitis may occur. This rare phenomenon should be recognized, and prompt ventricular drainage is advised. The literature is reviewed, and management of this condition is discussed.
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8/82. Atypical magnetic resonance imaging findings of craniopharyngioma.

    Three cases of craniopharyngiomas with atypical MRI findings are reported. The first patient had a nasopharyngeal craniopharyngioma. Its unusual location made diagnosis difficult. The second patient had a massive craniopharyngioma with extensive cystic expansion, involving the anterior, middle and posterior cranial fossae, and extending into the foramen magnum. The tumour of the third patient involved the suprasellar region with a large extension into the third ventricle, and demonstrated a predominantly high signal intensity on all T1-weighted, proton-weighted and T2-weighted images. These patients further stressed the complexity of MRI findings in craniopharyngiomas.
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9/82. Neuroendoscopic treatment of cystic craniopharyngioma in the third ventricle.

    The third ventricle is a relatively uncommon location for craniopharyngiomas. Generally, craniotomy has been considered the procedure of choice in such cases. We describe a girl in whom a cystic third ventricular craniopharyngioma was successfully treated by evacuation of the cyst contents via a flexible neuroendoscope and precise placement of an Ommaya reservoir catheter within the tumor.
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10/82. Microfilariae of wuchereria bancrofti in cyst fluid of tumors of the brain: a report of three cases.

    Microfilariae of various nematodes, including loa loa, Dirofilariae, and onchocerca volvulus, have been identified in the central nervous system (CNS). The CNS, however, is a rare site for the isolation of microfilariae of wuchereria bancrofti. To the best of our knowledge, the presence of microfilariae of W. bancrofti in tumor cyst fluids or cerebrospinal fluid has not been reported to date. We report three cases in which microfilariae were identified in the cyst fluid of tumors of the brain. cyst fluid aspirated from space-occupying lesions in the thalamus and C6-D1 spinal segments in a 46-yr-old man and a 35-yr-old man, respectively, showed numerous microfilariae of W. bancrofti, along with fragments of tumor suggestive of glioma. In the third case, in a 12-yr-old boy, the fluid from the space-occupying lesion in the third ventricle showed microfilariae in a necrotic dirty background with a few squames and cholesteral crystals. Histopathologic examination of the tumor showed an anaplastic astrocytoma and a low-grade astrocytoma in the first two cases, respectively, and a craniopharyngioma in the third case. No microfilariae were identified on the histology sections.
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