Cases reported "Craniopharyngioma"

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1/483. craniopharyngioma of the pineal region.

    Craniopharyngiomas generally develop either in the suprasellar region or in both suprasellar and intrasellar regions. We report on a nontypical location of the craniopharyngioma in the pineal region. An 8-year-old boy was admitted to the department of pediatric neurosurgery in a grave condition. An MRI scan of the brain was performed after the neurological examination and revealed a large neoplasm situated in the posterior part of the III ventricle and in the pineal region, measuring 8.5x6.5x5 cm. The size of the tumor and its location meant it was occluding three ventricles, with subsequent hydrocephaly. Total removal of the tumor was carried out. Microscopic investigation of the tissue removed showed the typical structure characteristic for craniopharyngioma of the adamantinomatous type. Results of a consultation 6 months after the operation revealed that the patient was feeling well, attending school regularly and had finished the first semester with excellent results. On control MRI scan no tumor was found. ( info)

2/483. craniopharyngioma invading the nasal and paranasal spaces, and presenting as nasal obstruction.

    A case of craniopharyngioma invading the nasal and paranasal sinuses and presenting as nasal obstruction is reported. Imaging showed a destructive mass of the skull base with involvement of the nose and paranasal sinuses. In the excised mass mitoses were frequent and the proliferation index was high. Invasion of the nasopharynx and presentation as a nasopharyngeal mass is uncommon for a craniopharyngioma. ( info)

3/483. Recovery from anterograde and retrograde amnesia after percutaneous drainage of a cystic craniopharyngioma.

    A case is reported of a cystic craniopharyngioma involving the floor and walls of the third ventricle. Pronounced anterograde and retrograde amnesia were documented preoperatively by formal testing. Rapid improvement in both new learning capacity and remote memory occurred after percutaneous twist drill drainage of the cystic portion of the tumour. The relevance of these observations to the amnesic syndrome and its neuropathological basis is discussed. ( info)

4/483. December 1998--16 year old female with headaches, lethargy and a sellar/suprasellar mass.

    A 16 year female with a history of developmental delay and shunted hydrocephalus presented with two months of progressive headaches, lethargy and visual disturbances. An MRI of the brain revealed a sellar and suprasellar cystic mass which was absent on a previous MRI six years earlier. The pre-operative clinical diagnosis was pituitary adenoma vs. craniopharyngioma. Histologically, the fibrous wall of the ciliated epithelial-lined cyst was thickened by non-caseating granulomatous inflammation, hemorrhage, hemosiderin, and cholesterol clefts, consistent with cyst rupture. Rathke's cleft cysts are uncommon symptomatic lesions in young people, and must be distinguished from craniopharyngioma. ( info)

5/483. Suprasellar cystic germinoma.

    We report on a germinoma in the suprasellar region, which had multiple large cystic components. A 13-year-old girl with disturbed visual acuity and growth retardation was admitted to our hospital for treatment of an intracranial tumor. The lesion was difficult to diagnose as a germinoma preoperatively, because of its radiographic characteristics. Histopathological examination revealed that the tumor was a germinoma. Surgery, chemotherapy with carboplatin and etoposide, and radiotherapy (30 Gy) were successful in inducing complete remission of the tumor. The patient's endocrine status remained normal, except for a low GH concentration and diabetes insipidus. ( info)

6/483. Regression of a large solid papillary craniopharyngioma following fractionated external radiotherapy.

    We present a patient harboring a large squamous papillary craniopharyngioma. The diagnosis was confirmed by a stereotactic biopsy. Because of vegetative symptoms indicating hypothalamic derangement, we were reluctant to perform surgical resection. Following fractionated megavoltage radiotherapy, MR imaging and CT demonstrated complete regression of the craniopharyngioma and the patient recovered from endocrine deficiency, chiasmal syndrome and vegetative hypothalamic symptoms. ( info)

7/483. Rathke's cleft cyst as a cause of growth hormone deficiency and micropenis.

    Rathke's cleft cyst has rarely been reported in pediatric patients, and such cysts are usually found by chance, in 2-33% of routine necropsies, as they have not interfered with pituitary function. In general, they are intrasellar with a single layer of ciliated cuboidal or columnar epithelium containing mucoid material. The age range in which symptomatic Rathke's cleft cysts occur is between 30 and 60 years. This paper reports an 8.1-year-old boy presenting with growth hormone deficiency and micropenis attributable to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH), implying altered pituitary function since intrauterine life. At this age (before puberty) the diagnosis of HH can be made by means of the LHRH agonist stimulation test, since conventional LHRH is not able to discriminate HH from a normal prepubertal child. To our knowledge, this is the first case of micropenis caused by Rathke's cleft cyst interfering with gonadotropin and growth hormone secretion since intrauterine life. ( info)

8/483. Suprasellar arachnoid cyst presenting with precocious puberty : report of two cases.

    Suprasellar arachnoid cysts (SSAC) are uncommon intracranial lesions. Two patients of SSAC presenting with precocious puberty are described. In both the cases partial excision of the cyst wall, through a pterional craniotomy, establishing communication with the basal subarachnoid spaces was carried out. The endocrinological symptoms regressed after surgery. The clinical presentations of SSAC and the treatment options available are reviewed. ( info)

9/483. Chronic hydrocephalus and suprasellar arachnoid cyst presenting with rhinorrhea.

    Spontaneous CSF leak with rhinorrhea may be secondary to many intracranial congenital and acquired conditions. However, no cases of chronic hydrocephalus and suprasellar arachnoid cyst presenting with rhinorrhea as the unique clinical manifestation are reported in the literature. A 29-year-old-man with four-month history of episodic rhinorrhea had a large suprasellar arachnoid cyst with chronic hydrocephalus on magnetic resonance. Endoscopic ventricular fenestration of the cyst failed to obtain remission of the CSF leak, because it was not possible to fenestrate the cyst with the almost completely obliterated suprasellar cistern. Clinical remission occurred after restoration of the CSF flow from the cyst to the cisternal spaces by a direct approach. The CSF leak in this case was secondary to the chronic compression over the dural and bone structures of the sellar region by the cyst or chronic hydrocephalus. ( info)

10/483. Rapid enlargement and recurrence of a preexisting intrasellar craniopharyngioma during the course of two pregnancies. Case report.

    Enlargement of preexisting pituitary adenomas during pregnancy is well documented, but this phenomenon is unusual for nonendocrine pituitary tumors such as craniopharyngiomas. Only six cases of craniopharyngioma have been reported as presenting during pregnancy. The authors describe a 19-year-old woman who presented with amenorrhea and galactorrhea caused by an intrasellar mass. Seven months later, when she was 20 weeks pregnant, the patient developed sudden visual dysfunction. Emergency transsphenoidal surgery was performed to restore visual function, and the tumor was found to be a craniopharyngioma. The patient had spontaneous labor and delivered a healthy infant at term. The tumor recurred 4 years later, during her second pregnancy, and was again entirely removed via a second transsphenoidal approach. She again had a normal term delivery. During the 5-year follow-up period she has demonstrated no endocrinological or visual dysfunction. Control magnetic resonance images have revealed no recurrence of the tumor. The transsphenoidal approach seems to be the safest procedure to use during pregnancy to achieve an immediate optic nerve decompression and to preserve pituitary function. ( info)
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