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1/118. Atypical case of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in a young adult.

    The great concern exists that new variant of CJD (nvCJD) developed as a result of exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-infected meat products. Therefore, all cases of CJD in the young, as the one of ours are the matter of interest. The 21-year-old female developed a rapid progression of pyramidal, extrapyramidal and cerebellar signs, visual loss and psychiatric symptoms, leading to death in 16 weeks. The microscopic features were: a neuronal loss accentuated in cerebral cortex with extensive astroglia proliferation and spongiform changes. Immunohistochemical staining, revealed the presence of "synaptic" deposits of PrP in the cerebral cortex and in the cerebellum. No florid amyloid plaques were present. The case was diagnosed as a sporadic CJD, with some features of Heidenhein variant (visual symptoms) and corticostriatocerebellar category. The pathological findings excluded a nv CJD which is linked with BSE.
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2/118. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease presenting with visual blurring, diplopia and visual loss: Heidenhain's variant.

    Focal electroencephalographic abnormalities as described in Heidenhain's variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are uncommon. We report a 73-year-old male presenting with visual symptoms, right hemianopia and rapidly progressive dementia. myoclonus was synchronous with generalised periodic epileptiform discharges on electroencephalography (EEG). In addition, there were periodic focal sharp waves at the left occipital region. diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance brain images showed slightly increased signal intensity in the occipital parasagittal area, left more than right. 14-3-3 protein was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid. The patient died within 5 months of presentation.
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ranking = 0.064769331280816
keywords = visual
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3/118. Argyrophilic grains in late-onset Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseased brain.

    Braak's argyrophilic grains (ArG) are spindle-shaped structures originally described in patients with dementia. Herein, a unique case of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) accompanied by numerous ArG is presented. The pathological picture was typical of CJD based on the findings of routine hematoxylin-eosin staining. The highest density of ArG was observed throughout the parahippocampal gyrus and the temporal gyri; however, the sector CA1 of the hippocampus showed less ArG. An immunohistochemical analysis for prion protein (PrP) revealed diffuse fine neuropil staining in the cerebral cortex, while the ArG themselves did not demonstrate any immunoreaction for PrP. No correlation was observed between the densities of ArG and either the presence of senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles or neuropil threads in the present case. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CJD demonstrating numerous ArG.
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keywords = cortex
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4/118. Leptomeningeal melanoma and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    A 78-year-old woman with known chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) was admitted to a psychiatric unit because of rapidly declining cognitive function. Clinical examination also revealed cerebellar signs and she later became akinetic and mute. She deteriorated and died of bronchopneumonia. The histology from the post-mortem confirmed the presence of CLL in the lymph nodes and she was also found to have diffuse leptomeningeal melanoma. In addition, there was extensive prion protein deposition in the cerebral cortex, but without significant spongiosis. The astrocytosis that was present appeared superficial only. Furthermore, prion protein appeared to be co-expressed with betaA4 in the form of plaques. The patient therefore had evidence of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in addition to meningeal melanoma and CLL. This case further illustrates the importance of employing prion protein immunohistochemistry in suspected cases of CJD, especially where the histology is atypical.
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keywords = cortex
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5/118. Giant visually-evoked potentials without myoclonus in the Heidenhain type of Creutzfeld-Jakob disease.

    In a 64-year old woman with progressive visual impairment for 4 weeks, probable Creutzfeld-Jakob disease without myoclonus was diagnosed after rapidly progressive mental deterioration had also developed, and CSF and EEG showed characteristic findings. Pattern-reversal and flash visually-evoked potentials, recorded 5, 6, 7 and 8 weeks after onset, showed a maximum P100 latency of 210 ms, 8 weeks after onset, and a maximum N75/P100 amplitude of 33.1 microV, 5 weeks after onset. While the P100 latency progressively increased, the N75/P100 amplitude continuously decreased after reaching its maximum. In the Heidenhain type of Creutzfeld-Jakob disease giant visually-evoked potentials may be recorded during the early stages of the disease, even in the absence of myoclonus. Visually-evoked potentials may prove useful in diagnosing Creutzfeld-Jakob disease with atypical initial presentation.
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keywords = visual
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6/118. Type 1 protease resistant prion protein and valine homozygosity at codon 129 of PRNP identify a subtype of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    A man was studied with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) who had serial cortical syndromes evolving over 15 months without significant ataxia, prominent myoclonus, or periodic complexes on EEG examinations. This clinical phenotype correlated with a predominantly cortical and striatal distribution of lesions and accumulation of protease resistant prion protein with relative sparing of the brainstem or cerebellum. No amyloid plaques were seen and prion protein (PrP) immunohistochemistry only demonstrated very faint granular deposits in the cerebral cortex. Molecular analysis showed homozygosity for valine at codon 129 in the prion protein gene (PRNP) and protease resistant prion protein type 1 deposition. The comparison of molecular and clinicopathological features of the present case with those previously reported in sCJD, indicates that valine homozygosity at codon 129 and type 1 protease resistant prion protein are associated with a distinct phenotypic variant of sCJD. The data also support the view that the PRNP codon 129 polymorphism and the physicochemical properties of the protease resistant prion protein are major determinants of phenotypic variability in sCJD.
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keywords = cortex
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7/118. Homonymous visual field defects in patients without corresponding structural lesions on neuroimaging.

    Homonymous visual field defects usually occur with structural processes affecting retrochiasmal visual pathways. The responsible lesion is usually evident on magnetic resonance imaging or on other neuroimaging studies. When results of neuroimaging are normal, functional illness is often suspected. The authors report four patients with homonymous visual field defects who presented with no evident corresponding lesion on magnetic resonance or computed tomography imaging. Etiologies for the visual field defects included the Heidenhain variant of Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease, degenerative dementia, subtle occipital ischemia demonstrated only on positron-emission tomography scanning, and nonketotic hyperglycemia. Clinicians should be aware of the alternative etiologies of organic homonymous visual field loss in patients with normal neuroimaging.
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ranking = 0.064769331280816
keywords = visual
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8/118. Selective loss of the electroretinogram B-wave in a patient with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by movement abnormalities and dementia that inevitably progress to death. Familial, infectious, and sporadic forms of the disease are recognized. The worldwide incidence of CJD is estimated at 1:1,000,000 per year, and it affects middle-aged men and women in roughly equal proportions. The disease is caused by a unique infectious vector, the prion, which is a mutant form of a normally occurring cell surface protein found predominantly in the central nervous system. A significant proportion of patients with CJD will have visual disturbances at some point in their illness and may therefore consult a neuro-ophthalmologist. The case of a woman in whom the diagnosis of CJD was not known until autopsy is reported. Early in the course of her disease, she sought ophthalmic consultation because of vision problems.
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ranking = 0.0071965923645352
keywords = visual
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9/118. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    Rapidly progressive dementia in an adult with findings of bilateral, symmetric high signal intensity on T2-weighted sequences and normal findings on T1-weighted sequences predominantly in the deep grey matter is suggestive of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). The peripheral cortex may be involved, as it was in the present case. The absence of subcortical periventricular white matter high signal intensity suggests that symmetric high signal intensities within the basal ganglia and cortical grey matter are more likely to be due to a degenerative process rather than due to ischaemia, infection or tumour.
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keywords = cortex
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10/118. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with a novel four extra-repeat insertional mutation in the PrP gene.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of a short insertional mutation in the prion protein (PrP) gene (PRNP) in prion disease pathogenesis. BACKGROUND: The genetic forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) are associated with point or insertional mutations in PRNP. Whereas patients with five, six, seven, eight, and nine extra octapeptide repeats show an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance and features of CJD, gerstmann-straussler-scheinker disease, or atypical dementia, patients with one, two, or four extra repeats have typical CJD and lack a family history of neurologic disorder. methods: A genetic, neuropathologic, and biochemical study was carried out in a 65-year-old patient with clinical features of sporadic CJD. RESULTS: A novel four extra-repeat insertional mutation of PRNP was found in the patient and in his 59-year-old healthy sister. The patient showed spongiosis, nerve cell loss, and gliosis associated with diffuse PrP immunoreactivity in the cerebral cortex, subcortical gray structures, and cerebellum. A peculiar aspect was the presence of focal PrP deposits in the basal ganglia and hypothalamus, superimposed to diffuse PrP immunoreactivity. The biochemical analysis revealed that both mutant and wild-type PrP participated in the pathologic process, and that the protease-resistant core of the altered PrP isoforms was distinct from that observed in sporadic, acquired, and other genetic forms of CJD. CONCLUSION: These findings support the view that the four extra-repeat insertion in PRNP is a pathogenic mutation with low penetrance rather than a benign polymorphism, and suggest that this mutation results in the formation of a distinct PrP conformer.
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ranking = 0.49280340763546
keywords = cortex
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