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1/506. Hashimoto's encephalitis as a differential diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    OBJECTIVES: During an epidemiological study of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in germany, Hashimoto's encephalitis was encountered as a differential diagnosis, which has not yet been described in this context. methods: The symptoms and findings of seven patients who fulfilled the criteria for "possible" Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are presented. RESULTS: A Hashimoto's thyroiditis with antibodies against thyroglobulin or thyroid peroxidase, or both and a hypoechoic thyroid ultrasonogram were found in all cases. Analysis of CSF disclosed an increased leucocyte count in three patients, and a raised CSF:serum concentration ratio of albumin (QA1b) in four patients. The 14-3-3 protein, typical of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, could not be detected in any of our patients. No periodic sharp wave complexes, which are typical of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, were detected on EEG in any of the cases. By contrast with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, which leads to death within a few months, the patients with Hashimoto's encephalitis often recover quickly when treated adequately. All the patients improved after administration of corticosteroids. CONCLUSION: The clinical symptomatology of both diseases may be very similar: dementia, myoclonus, ataxia, and personality change or psychotic phenomena are characteristic symptoms. ( info)

2/506. Atypical case of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in a young adult.

    The great concern exists that new variant of CJD (nvCJD) developed as a result of exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-infected meat products. Therefore, all cases of CJD in the young, as the one of ours are the matter of interest. The 21-year-old female developed a rapid progression of pyramidal, extrapyramidal and cerebellar signs, visual loss and psychiatric symptoms, leading to death in 16 weeks. The microscopic features were: a neuronal loss accentuated in cerebral cortex with extensive astroglia proliferation and spongiform changes. Immunohistochemical staining, revealed the presence of "synaptic" deposits of PrP in the cerebral cortex and in the cerebellum. No florid amyloid plaques were present. The case was diagnosed as a sporadic CJD, with some features of Heidenhein variant (visual symptoms) and corticostriatocerebellar category. The pathological findings excluded a nv CJD which is linked with BSE. ( info)

3/506. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease presenting with visual blurring, diplopia and visual loss: Heidenhain's variant.

    Focal electroencephalographic abnormalities as described in Heidenhain's variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are uncommon. We report a 73-year-old male presenting with visual symptoms, right hemianopia and rapidly progressive dementia. myoclonus was synchronous with generalised periodic epileptiform discharges on electroencephalography (EEG). In addition, there were periodic focal sharp waves at the left occipital region. diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance brain images showed slightly increased signal intensity in the occipital parasagittal area, left more than right. 14-3-3 protein was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid. The patient died within 5 months of presentation. ( info)

4/506. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with florid-type plaques after cadaveric dura mater grafting.

    BACKGROUND: Many reported cases of iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) developed after grafting cadaveric dura mater contaminated with CJD prions (dura-associated CJD). They are known to be clinicopathologically similar to sporadic CJD. We report herein 2 autopsy cases of dura-associated CJD with atypical clinicopathological features. patients: Two patients presented with progressive ataxia and mental deterioration 10 or 11 years after neurosurgical treatment with cadaveric dural grafting, which led to their deaths at 8 and 17 months, respectively, after onset. RESULTS: The cases were clinically atypical in exhibiting no or late occurrence of myoclonus and periodic synchronous discharges on electroencephalographic studies. They were pathologically unique in several aspects. The most striking feature was the presence of many prion protein (PrP) plaques in multiple areas in the brain. Some of them were the "florid" type surrounded by a zone of spongiform changes known to be a hallmark for the new variant CJD. The distribution of spongiform degeneration was also unique in that it was intense in the thalamus, basal ganglia, and the dentate nuclei of the cerebellum but milder in the cerebrum. There were no mutations in the PrP gene of the patients. There was no major difference in the size and glycoform pattern between the abnormal isoform of PrP extracted from the brain tissue from the dura-associated cases of CJD and that from a sporadic case of CJD. CONCLUSIONS: These 2 cases are clinicopathologically distinct from typical dura-associated cases of CJD. They may be a subtype with florid-type plaques in dura-associated CJD. ( info)

5/506. Submicroscopic immunodetection of PrP in the brain of a patient with a new-variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    We analyzed the distribution and organization of the pathological prion protein isoform (PrPsc) in the brain of new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease using a sensitive post-embedding immunogold electron microscopy method. On methacrylate semithin sections, silver-PrP staining showed florid plaques, containing microvacuoles. It also revealed scattered granular and perivacuolar deposits. At the electron microscope level, plaque PrP-gold labeling was associated with filaments and flocculent amorphous material sometimes observed inside microvacuoles, considered as degenerative neurites. Outside the plaques, PrP-gold labeling was predominantly found over flocculent amorphous material and the presynaptic domain of synapses. Some lysosome-like organelles seen in the neuron perikaryon, were also found to be PrP-immunoreactive. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the synapse is a privileged target in prion disease. ( info)

6/506. New MRI findings in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: high signal in the globus pallidus on T1-weighted images.

    We report a 49-year-old woman with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). In addition to typical high-signal lesions on proton-density and T2-weighted images there was high signal in the globus pallidus bilaterally on T1-weighted images. The latter feature has not been described previously and probably due to deposition of prion protein, as found at autopsy. ( info)

7/506. A novel phenotype in familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: prion protein gene E200K mutation coupled with valine at codon 129 and type 2 protease-resistant prion protein.

    A novel phenotype of familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) with mutated codon 200 of the prion protein gene (PRNP) coupled with the valine codon 129 (E200K-129V haplotype) has two features never observed in subjects carrying the pathogenic mutation coupled with the methionine codon 129 (E200K-129M haplotype): (1) plaque-like prion protein (PrP) deposits in the cerebellum and (2) type 2 protease-resistant prion protein (PrP(res)). This observation further underlines the role of codon 129 on the mutated PRNP allele in modulating the phenotype of familial prion diseases. ( info)

8/506. wernicke encephalopathy-like symptoms as an early manifestation of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a chronic alcoholic.

    A case of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) with presenting wernicke encephalopathy (WE)-like symptoms and severe insomnia is presented. An 80-year-old alcoholic man with a 6 month history of tremors, ataxia, memory loss and confabulation, developed profound insomnia, confusion, and delirium with vivid hallucinations. polysomnography revealed a marked reduction of sleep time, with central-type sleep apnea. Neither myoclonus nor periodic synchronous discharge (PSD) was observed. An autopsy revealed diffuse spongiform changes and astrocytosis throughout the cerebral gray matter, with severe involvement of the mammillary bodies and thalamus. Prion protein (PrP) immunostaining was positive in kuru plaques in the cerebellum, PrP polymorphism at codon 129 was heterozygous Met/Val, and proteinase K resistant PrP (PrP(res)) was demonstrated by Western blotting. The lack of necrotizing lesions in the mammillary bodies, thalamus, and periaqueductal gray matter could rule out WE. The data suggest that the present case of CJD is consistent with PrP(res) type 2 (CJD M/V 2), but was unique in the lack of some typical CJD signs and the presence of signs of WE and sleep abnormalities. ( info)

9/506. Argyrophilic grains in late-onset Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseased brain.

    Braak's argyrophilic grains (ArG) are spindle-shaped structures originally described in patients with dementia. Herein, a unique case of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) accompanied by numerous ArG is presented. The pathological picture was typical of CJD based on the findings of routine hematoxylin-eosin staining. The highest density of ArG was observed throughout the parahippocampal gyrus and the temporal gyri; however, the sector CA1 of the hippocampus showed less ArG. An immunohistochemical analysis for prion protein (PrP) revealed diffuse fine neuropil staining in the cerebral cortex, while the ArG themselves did not demonstrate any immunoreaction for PrP. No correlation was observed between the densities of ArG and either the presence of senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles or neuropil threads in the present case. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CJD demonstrating numerous ArG. ( info)

10/506. diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in probable Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a clinical-anatomic correlation.

    BACKGROUND: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare transmissible disease that typically causes a rapidly progressive dementia and leads to death in less than 1 year. Although a few anecdotal reports suggest that diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging may help substantiate premortem diagnosis of CJD, detailed correlation between radiographic data and clinical, electrophysiologic, and metabolic parameters is not available. methods: Signal abnormalities on diffusion-weighted images in 3 consecutive patients with probable CJD were correlated with psychometric features, electroencephalographic findings, and functional images with either positron emission tomography or single photon emission computed tomography. RESULTS: Focality of abnormalities on diffusion-weighted image, not apparent on routine magnetic resonance images, correlated closely with clinical manifestations of CJD. The topographic distribution of signal abnormality on diffusion-weighted image corresponded with abnormal metabolism or perfusion on positron emission and single photon emission computed tomographic scans. In 2 cases, the laterality of diffusion abnormalities correlated with periodic sharp wave activity on electroencephalograms. CONCLUSION: These findings extend previous observations that suggested a diagnostic and localizing utility of diffusion-weighted imaging in CJD. ( info)
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