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1/2. critical illness neuropathy in pediatric intensive care patients.

    critical illness neuropathy is an axonal polyneuropathy recognized more frequently in adult intensive care patients with sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction. In children the diagnosis is rarely made. Within 1 year the authors observed two children with critical illness neuropathy. Both patients, a male 6 years, 6 months of age with a brain contusion and a male 2 years, 6 months of age who underwent craniectomy for Crouzon's disease, required prolonged mechanical ventilation and developed sepsis with multiple organ dysfunction. Three to 4 weeks after successful treatment of the sepsis, a flaccid tetraparesis was noticed in both patients. Laboratory investigations of blood and cerebrospinal fluid and spinal magnetic resonance imaging revealed normal results. Electrophysiologic examinations were indicative of an axonal polyneuropathy. Spontaneous improvement occurred within several months. It is likely that critical illness neuropathy occurs more often in critically ill children than previously thought. Careful neurologic examination and early electrophysiologic investigations are necessary to establish the diagnosis. Important differential diagnoses of acquired lower motor neuron weakness in pediatric intensive care medicine are discussed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = craniectomy
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2/2. Neurological recovery after decompressive craniectomy for massive ischemic stroke.

    INTRODUCTION: decompressive craniectomy has demonstrated efficacy in reducing morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients with massive hemispheric cerebral infarction. However, little is known about the patterns of functional recovery that exist in patients after decompressive craniectomy, and controversy still exists as to whether craniotomy and infarct resection ("strokectomy") are appropriate alternatives to decompression alone. We therefore used functional magnetic resonance imaging (f-MRI) to assess the extent and location of functional recovery in patients after decompressive craniectomy for massive ischemic stroke. methods: f-MRI was obtained in three patients with massive nondominant cerebral infarction who had undergone decompressive craniectomy for severe cerebral edema 13 to 26 months previously. brain activation was triggered by hand-gripping or foot- movement tasks. Imaging results were combined with periodic clinical follow-up to determine the extent of neurological recovery. RESULTS: Activation of the contralateral hemisphere was seen in the sensorimotor cortex, premotor, and supplementary motor areas. Lesser activation patterns were seen in equivalent regions of the infarcted hemisphere. Peri-infarct activation foci were seen in two of the three patients, but no activation occurred within the area of infarction as defined by the initial stroke seen on diffusion-weighted MRI. All three patients demonstrated some corresponding neurological improvement. CONCLUSION: After massive hemispheric cerebral infarction requiring decompressive craniectomy, patients may experience functional recovery as a result of activation in both the infarcted and contralateral hemispheres. The evidence of functional recovery in peri-infarct regions suggests that decompression alone may be preferable to strokectomy where the risk of damage to adjacent nonischemic brain may be greater.
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ranking = 258.41703479704
keywords = decompressive craniectomy, craniectomy, decompressive
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