Cases reported "Cross Infection"

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1/6. Multiple drug-resistant mycobacterium tuberculosis: evidence for changing fitness following passage through human hosts.

    Recent studies have shown a difference in the genotype of resistant bacteria following passage in animals compared to those passaged in vitro. This suggests that organisms rapidly adapt to their environment of growth. We sought to investigate whether this phenomenon occurred in human infection and whether changes could be detected in the fitness (growth velocity) of isolates transmitted between human hosts. Isogenic strains of mycobacterium tuberculosis were obtained from a well-documented hospital outbreak. The subjects included those who were hiv seropositive and immunocompromised. The relative fitness of each sample was measured using growth competition in vitro. The results confirmed that our method of measuring fitness was not influenced by the storage conditions of the isolates, and demonstrated that the fitness of genetically similar isolates obtained from different patients in the outbreak differed significantly, as reflected in the growth velocity of the strains. This study provides the first evidence that multiple drug resistant M. tuberculosis strains adapt to the environment of their human host.
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keywords = animal
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2/6. Hospital-acquired bordetella bronchiseptica infection following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Two patients who had undergone nonmyeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation 53 and 112 days earlier and were being monitored at the same transplant center developed severe bordetella bronchiseptica infections within 3 days of each other. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that the isolates from the two cases were identical. Neither patient had had direct contact with animals since transplantation. These findings strongly support nosocomial transmission of B. bronchiseptica.
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keywords = animal
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3/6. A family outbreak of cryptosporidiosis: Probable nosocomial infection and person-to-person transmission.

    cryptosporidium is an important cause of community gastroenteritis, usually associated with drinking contaminated water, visits to swimming pools or animal exposure. In immunocompetent patients, cryptosporidiosis is usually a self-limiting disease but it can be devastating illness in immunocompromised persons. This report presents a family outbreak of cryptosporidiosis and describes a probable nosocomial infection with cryptosporidium in one patient and subsequent spread of the parasite among members of his family. The index patient, a 72-year-old man with hemiparesis after his third stroke, died after 28 days of persistent diarrhea. Control measures must be undertaken to prevent nosocomial transmission of cryptosporidial oocysts.
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keywords = animal
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4/6. Cross-infection between animals and man: possible feline transmission of Staphylococcus aureus infection in humans?

    An outbreak of epidemic methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus occurred on a rehabilitation geriatric ward. Intensive screening of patients and staff revealed an unusually high carriage rate in the nursing staff (38%), thought to be related to a ward cat which was heavily colonized from the environment. infection control measures and removal of the cat led to rapid resolution of the outbreak.
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keywords = animal
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5/6. Nosocomial spread of clostridium difficile.

    Environmental transmission of clostridium difficile, the causative agent of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis (PMC), has been supported by animal studies and implicated in spread of C. difficile among leukemic children receiving non-absorbable antibiotics. We report antibiotic-associated C. difficile-related colitis in two adults who shared a commode chair during hospitalization.
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keywords = animal
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6/6. Persistent bacteremia with erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in a hospitalized patient.

    A patient with a history of alcohol abuse and pancreatitis presented with a pleural effusion resulting from a fistula between the pancreatic duct and left pleural space. Two weeks into her hospitalization, fever and persistent bloodstream infection with erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and candida albicans developed. The patient had no history of exposure to animals. To our knowledge this is the first report of an E. rhusiopathiae infection presenting during hospitalization. This case suggests the possibility of a carrier state of infection and illustrates that a high index of suspicion is necessary for identification of unusual pathogens in hospitalized patients.
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ranking = 1
keywords = animal
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