Cases reported "Cross Infection"

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11/750. flatfoot and calcaneal deformity secondary to osteomyelitis after neonatal heel puncture.

    Deformity of the calcaneus was observed in three patients who developed osteomyelitis after neonatal heel puncture for newborn blood studies. Septic involvement of the calcaneal apophysis may produce an abnormal and early closure of this growth plate. Progressive deformity of the calcaneus, despite appropriate treatment, develops into an asymptomatic flatfoot. A strictly aseptic technique is mandatory for neonatal puncture of the heel to avoid this unusual complication. An infectious cause of flatfoot is proposed in this report.
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12/750. The successful containment of coxsackie B4 infection in a neonatal unit.

    This report describes the containment of a potential enterovirus epidemic in a neonatal intensive care unit. A case of neonatal enterovirus meningitis and myocarditis was identified. polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to assist in appropriate cohorting of contacts. One further infant became cross-infected with Coxsackie B4. serum PCR was accurate in detecting the infection in the early stages in this asymptomatic neonate. Neonatal enterovirus infection is relatively rare but has the potential to cause outbreaks in neonatal wards. PCR can be used to diagnose and monitor for cross infection.
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13/750. Nosocomial Candida krusei fungemia in cancer patients: report of 10 cases and review.

    The risk factors, therapy and outcome of ten cases of fungemia due to Candida krusei, appearing during the last 10 years in a single national cancer institution, are analyzed. Univariate analyses did not find any specific risk factors in comparison to 51 candida albicans fungemias appearing at the same institution and with a similar antibiotic policy. association with prior fluconazole prophylaxis was not confirmed because only one case appeared in a patient previously treated with fluconazole. However, attributable and crude mortality due to C. krusei fungemias was higher than for C. albicans fungemia. The authors review 172 C. krusei fungemias published within the last 10 years to compare with the incidence, therapy and outcome of C. krusei fungemia from our cancer institute.
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ranking = 1.75
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14/750. Three cases of severe subfulminant hepatitis in heart-transplanted patients after nosocomial transmission of a mutant hepatitis b virus.

    Fulminant and severe viral hepatitis are frequently associated with mutant hepatitis b virus (HBV) strains. In this study, the genetic background of a viral strain causing severe subfulminant outcome in heart-transplanted patients was studied and compared with viral hepatitis B strains that were not linked to severe liver disease in the same setting. A total of 46 patients infected nosocomially with HBV genotype A were studied. Five different viral strains were detected, infecting 3, 9, 5, 24, and 5 patients, respectively. Only one viral strain was found to be associated with the subfulminant outcome and 3 patient deaths as a consequence of severe liver disease. The remaining 43 patients with posttransplantation HBV infection did not show this fatal outcome. Instead, symptoms of hepatitis were generally mild or clinically undiagnosed. Comparison of this virus genome with the four other strains showed an accumulation of mutations in the basic core promoter, a region that influences viral replication, but also in hepatitis B X protein (HBX) (7 mutant motifs), core (10 mutant motifs), the preS1 region (5 mutant motifs), and the HBpolymerase open reading frame (17 motifs). Some of these variations, such as those in the core region, were located on the tip of the protruding spike of the viral capsid (codons 60 to 90), also known in part as an important HLA class II-restricted epitope region. These mutations might therefore influence the immune-mediated response. The viral strain causing subfulminant hepatitis was, in addition, the only strain with a preCore stop codon mutation and, thus, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) expression was never observed. The combination of these specific viral factors is thought to be responsible for the fatal outcome in these immune-suppressed heart-transplant recipients.
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ranking = 1181.172077501
keywords = hepatitis, b
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15/750. Hospital water supply as a source of disseminated mycobacterium fortuitum infection in a leukemia patient.

    Nosocomial acquisition of mycobacterium fortuitum led to a disseminated infection in a leukemia patient. A linkage to showerhead water was supported by molecular typing of clinical and environmental isolates. Contamination of the hospital water system with microbes that are relatively resistant to common sanitation processes poses an increased risk of infection to neutropenic patients.
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ranking = 1.75
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16/750. Multiple types of legionella pneumophila serogroup 6 in a hospital heated-water system associated with sporadic infections.

    Five sporadic cases of nosocomial legionnaires' disease were documented from 1989 to 1997 in a hospital in northern italy. Two of them, which occurred in a 75-year-old man suffering from ischemic cardiopathy and in an 8-year-old girl suffering from acute leukemia, had fatal outcomes. legionella pneumophila serogroup 6 was isolated from both patients and from hot-water samples taken at different sites in the hospital. These facts led us to consider the possibility that a single clone of L. pneumophila serogroup 6 had persisted in the hospital environment for 8 years and had caused sporadic infections. Comparison of clinical and environmental strains by monoclonal subtyping, macrorestriction analysis (MRA), and arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) showed that the strains were clustered into three different epidemiological types, of which only two types caused infection. An excellent correspondence between the MRA and AP-PCR results was observed, with both techniques having high discriminatory powers. However, it was not possible to differentiate the isolates by means of ribotyping and analysis of rrn operon polymorphism. Environmental strains that antigenically and chromosomally matched the infecting organism were present at the time of infection in hot-water samples taken from the ward where the patients had stayed. Interpretation of the temporal sequence of events on the basis of the typing results for clinical and environmental isolates enabled the identification of the ward where the patients became infected and the modes of transmission of Legionella infection. The long-term persistence in the hot-water system of different clones of L. pneumophila serogroup 6 indicates that repeated heat-based control measures were ineffective in eradicating the organism.
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ranking = 3.75
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17/750. acinetobacter meningitis: four nosocomial cases.

    We report the clinical features and therapeutic outcomes of four patients with multiantibiotic-resistant acinetobacter meningitis. There were three males and one female, aged from 17 to 49 years. Three of them had suffered from head injuries with skull fractures, and the other suffered from an intracerebral hemorrhage and underwent a craniotomy. All four patients acquired nosocomial acinetobacter meningitis, and multiantibiotic resistance developed. After treatment with imipenem/cilastatin, three of the four patients survived; one died of multiorgan failure. Because the clinical manifestations of acinetobacter meningitis are similar to those of other gram-negative bacillary meningitis, the diagnosis can only be confirmed by bacterial culture. Resistance to multiple antibiotics, including third-generation cephalosporins, is frequently seen in patients with nosocomial acinetobacter meningitis, and imipenem/cilastatin seems to be the antibiotic of choice for this potentially fatal central nervous system infection.
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ranking = 4.5
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18/750. Nosocomial transmission of penicillin-resistant streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Two patients were found to harbor intermediate-level penicillin-resistant streptococcus pneumoniae in a pediatric hospital setting. For the first patient, the bacterium was isolated from a tracheal aspirate, and for the second patient, a positive blood culture was found a short time after the index case. Two molecular typing techniques (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence polymerase chain reaction, and repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction) demonstrated homology among these isolates, which suggests person-to-person spread. We propose the need for institution-based infection control precautions that will limit the spread of penicillin-resistant pneumococci.
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ranking = 1.5
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19/750. An epidemic outbreak of malassezia folliculitis in three adult patients in an intensive care unit: a previously unrecognized nosocomial infection.

    BACKGROUND: malassezia is a lipophilic fungus commonly found in normal human skin. Infection of the hair follicle by malassezia furfur occurs in patients with predisposing factors such as diabetes or immunosuppression, or who are undergoing antibiotic treatment. malassezia furfur folliculitis is an infrequent nosocomial infection which may be associated with fomite transmission. methods: We reviewed the clinical files of three adult patients from an intensive care unit (ICU) who simultaneously developed folliculitis through malassezia infection. We specifically analysed predisposing factors, possible transmission modes, characteristics of skin lesions, results of biopsies and cultures, treatment, and patient outcome. RESULTS: The three male patients were in neighboring beds and they all had factors that predisposed them to underlying immunosupression. Simultaneously, and within hours of each other, they developed erythematous follicular papules and pustules on the face and chest. The skin biopsies revealed an acute folliculitis with abundant round to oval yeasts of up to 5 microm in diameter. Stains for fungi (Schiff's peryodic acid, Grocott and silver methenamine) revealed numerous unipolar budding yeasts without hyphae, consistent with M. furfur. Conventional cultures were negative. The diagnosis of folliculitis by M. furfur was established and antifinigal treatment initiated, with adequate outcome of the dermatosis. After this outbreak, the aseptic and hygienic measures of the health care personnel of the ICU were reviewed and corrected. CONCLUSIONS: The simultaneous emergence of this superficial infection by M. furfur suggests fomite participation. This dermatomycosis is an infrequent nosocomial infection in adults, which to our knowledge has not been previously reported.
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ranking = 5
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20/750. serratia marcescens bacteremia after carotid endarterectomy and coronary artery bypass grafting.

    serratia marcescens is a common, water-borne hospital colonizer. Respiratory secretions, wounds, and urine are frequently recognized areas of Serratia colonization. Serratia bacteremias usually occur nosocomially and are associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. Serratia bacteremias may be primary or secondary from an identifiable source. Hospital-acquired S marcescens bacteremias have no known source in half of the cases. We present a case of nosocomial primary S marcescens bacteremia in a surgical patient successfully treated with levofloxacin.
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ranking = 4
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