Cases reported "Croup"

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1/3. Acute viral laryngotracheitis complicated by herpes simplex virus infection.

    We report the development of HSV-1 laryngotracheitis during the resolution phase of typical viral laryngotracheobronchitis (LTB) in an infant. This case represents an uncommon complication of viral LTB which has previously been described only at autopsy and suggests that prolonged use of systemic corticosteroids may lead to secondary infections, such as HSV-1. Therefore, we recommend that corticosteroid therapy for LTB be limited to 48 degrees in duration. This case also demonstrates that when an atypical clinical course is being followed by a patient who has LTB, then early diagnostic intervention is indicated. If HSV-1 is identified, anti-viral chemotherapy should be initiated and artificial airway management may be necessary. Tracheal intubation may be used, but, if extensive subglottic ulceration occurs, the subglottis should be bypassed in order that the chance of subglottic stenosis be minimized. In this case, early identification by bronchoscopy and viral cultures resulted in a successful combined medical-surgical management and total resolution with no sequelae.
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ranking = 1
keywords = culture
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2/3. Pseudomembranous croup.

    During a 2-year period, 7 children were seen with a severe form of laryngotracheobronchitis associated with sloughing of the respiratory epithelium and profuse mucopurulent secretions. We have called this condition pseudomembranous croup. The children had severe upper airways obstruction, appeared toxic with high fever, and were older than the typical age group for viral laryngotracheobronchitis. Lateral x-ray films of the airways showed subglottic narrowing and often these suggested the presence of radio-opaque foreign material in the tracheal lumen. At endoscopy, in addition to pseudomembrane in the subglottic region and trachea, there was thick mucopus and debris, and in some cases these changes extended into the bronchi. An artificial airway was required in all except one, and even after intubation it proved difficult to maintain the airway. staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen isolated from tracheal cultures but other organisms were grown.
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ranking = 1
keywords = culture
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3/3. herpes simplex virus infection. A rare cause of prolonged croup.

    Pediatric acute subglottic croup is generally of limited duration (usually 2 to 7 days) and caused by influenza or parainfluenza viruses. Prolonged infections may involve other pathogens. To date and to our knowledge, there has been but a single case report of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection prolonging croup attributed to prolonged use of corticosteroids. Other authors have reported a wide range of HSV-1 infections of the upper and lower respiratory tracts in all age groups that are usually associated with immunocompromise. Two immunocompetent toddlers with prolonged croup associated with HSV-1-positive subglottic lesions are described herein. In one case the culture was obtained 11 days after just three doses of dexamethasone treatment. In the second case the culture was obtained after 10 days of prednisone therapy; the infection cleared quickly following treatment with acyclovir and rapid taper of the prednisone dose. These cases suggest that prolonged croup-like symptoms warrant thorough airway evaluation. herpes simplex virus type 1 should be a suspected pathogen in cases of prolonged or atypical croup. herpes simplex virus type 1 croup is not necessarily associated with immunocompromise or prolonged corticosteroid therapy. acyclovir seems to be effective in treating other airway HSV infections, and by analogy it is the treatment of choice in recalcitrant herpetic croup. It is unknown whether HSV-1 represents a primary or secondary pathogen in prolonged croup.
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ranking = 2
keywords = culture
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