Cases reported "Cryptosporidiosis"

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1/8. Identification of genotypes of cryptosporidium parvum isolates from a patient and a dog in japan.

    cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) is recognized as a significant pathogen in humans and animals, primarily as a cause of diarrheal illness. Recent genetic and biological studies indicate that C. parvum is not a single species but composed of genetically distinct multiple genotypes. Thus, it is valuable to distinguish between genotypes in the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium infection in humans and animals. Although C. parvum has been detected in humans and animals in japan, the genotype of isolates remains unclear because identification has been performed only by conventional microscopy. We report herein the genotypes of C. parvum isolates distinguished by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic method. C. parvum isolates, originally obtained from a patient and a pet dog, were found to have cattle and dog genotypes, respectively.
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2/8. Resolution of cryptosporidiosis with probiotic treatment.

    Cryptosporidium infection is usually self limited, but can be a life threatening illness in immunocompromised patients. probiotics have been used successfully in the treatment of acute diarrhoea and they have also been shown to limit cryptosporidium parvum infection in animal models. The first case of successful resolution of prolonged cryptosporidiosis with probiotic treatment is reported.
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3/8. Cryptosporidium infection in renal transplant patients.

    cryptosporidium parvum, an intracellular protozoan parasite, is a significant cause of gastrointestinal disease worldwide. Transmission can occur from an infected person, animal or fecally contaminated environment. The clinical manifestations of cryptosporidiosis are dependent on the immunologic state of the host. infection among immunocompetent hosts results in diarrhea that is typically self-limited. In immunocompromised hosts, however, the infection may be protracted and life-threatening with no reliable antimicrobial therapy. In transplant patients, a course of antimicrobial therapy along with concurrent reduction in immunosuppression optimize immunologic status and may potentially lead to resolution of the infection.
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4/8. A family outbreak of cryptosporidiosis: Probable nosocomial infection and person-to-person transmission.

    Cryptosporidium is an important cause of community gastroenteritis, usually associated with drinking contaminated water, visits to swimming pools or animal exposure. In immunocompetent patients, cryptosporidiosis is usually a self-limiting disease but it can be devastating illness in immunocompromised persons. This report presents a family outbreak of cryptosporidiosis and describes a probable nosocomial infection with Cryptosporidium in one patient and subsequent spread of the parasite among members of his family. The index patient, a 72-year-old man with hemiparesis after his third stroke, died after 28 days of persistent diarrhea. Control measures must be undertaken to prevent nosocomial transmission of cryptosporidial oocysts.
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5/8. Bronchial and gastrointestinal cryptosporidiosis in AIDS.

    cryptosporidiosis is a coccidial protozoan initially reported in domestic animals. It is primarily a gastrointestinal organism that does not invade mucosa. It was first described in 1976 in developing countries as an etiology of infantile diarrhea with inanition and malnutrition. Gastrointestinal involvement in patients with AIDS has been increasingly reported. We report a case of combined gastrointestinal and bronchial cryptosporidiosis. Cryptosporidium is an acid-fast organism which was successfully treated with erythromycin.
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6/8. cryptosporidiosis.

    In the united states, the four groups at high risk of cryptosporidiosis are animal handlers, foreign travelers, children in day care centers and immunocompromised patients, including those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In immunocompetent patients, the sporadic diarrheal illness is self-limited. diagnosis is made by the identification of Cryptosporidium oocysts in stool specimens, but these parasites are easily overlooked and may be confused with yeast. At present, there is no specific therapy for this infection.
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7/8. azithromycin therapy for cryptosporidium parvum infection in four children infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    cryptosporidium parvum intestinal infection in immunodeficient patients can cause severe intestinal fluid losses with severe dehydration or chronic diarrhea with malnutrition. Therapies tried in human beings and animals include paromomycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, octreotide, hyperimmune bovine colostrum, and bovine transfer factor. No specific therapy has been found to be consistently beneficial to children. We report azithromycin treatment of four children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome who had severe diarrheal illnesses in which cryptosporidium parvum was the sole pathogen detected. Three of these children had a marked decrease in stool volume and frequency within 36 hours of initiating therapy and resolution of diarrhea within 5 days; Cryptosporidium organisms became undetectable on examination of stool or colonic biopsy or by both after therapy was discontinued. A fourth patient required prolonged therapy with azithromycin to achieve clearance. azithromycin therapy should be considered for immunocompromised patients with intestinal Cryptosporidium infection.
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8/8. cryptosporidiosis in children who visited an open farm.

    In the summer of 1995, cryptosporidiosis was diagnosed in a child in hospital. This child had taken part in a summer activity project involving 161 children and nine adults. Reports of a similar illness among a number of other participants prompted an outbreak investigation. A cohort study was conducted in two phases. Thirteen children (aged 6 to 15 years) out of 161 respondents to the first questionnaire met the case definition for illness and cryptosporidium was detected in stools from seven of the 13. Illness was significantly associated with child participants who had visited an open farm (p < .000005). Nine of the cases sought medical attention, and two were admitted to hospital. The second phase of the cohort study was conducted among 52 of the 55 people who had visited the open farm. Illness was significantly associated with playing in sand to which animals had access, at the edge of a stream beside a picnic area (p < .005). Contact with various animals was not associated with illness. This outbreak emphasises the risk for children of visiting open farms. Managers of open farms need to be aware of the potential for transmission of infectious diseases to visiting children. Strict implementation of hygiene measures is essential to minimise risk.
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